Spin Labeling - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120923502, 9781483216409

Spin Labeling

1st Edition

Theory and Applications

Editors: Lawrence J. Berliner
eBook ISBN: 9781483216409
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1976
Page Count: 608
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Spin Labeling: Theory and Applications covers the background, theory, and applications of spin labeling. The book starts by providing an introduction about electron spin resonance in biology and a reporter group technique of spin labelling. The text then describes the principles and theories of magnetic resonance; the theory of slow tumbling ESR spectra for nitroxides; and the influence of electron-electron interactions on the appearance of the electron resonance spectrum.
The chemistry of spin labels; the molecular structures of nitroxides; the instrumental aspects of spin labeling; as well as the use of spin labels for studying the structure and function of enzymes are also considered. The book further discusses spin-label-induced nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation studies of enzymes; anisotropic motion in liquid crystalline structures; and the use of oriented lipid systems as model membranes. The text also looks into the application of lipid spin labels in biological membranes as well as the molecular motion in biological membranes. Chemists, molecular biologists, chemical physicists, people involved in the study of physical spectrometry, and graduate students taking related courses will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Introduction

I. Electron Spin Resonance in Biology

II. Spin Labeling—A Reporter Group Technique

III. Prelude


2. General Magnetic Resonance Theory

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Electron Spin Resonance

III. The Magnetic Interactions

IV. Analysis of the ESR Spectra

V. Line Shape Theory


3. Theory of Slow Tumbling ESR Spectra for Nitroxides

I. Introduction

II. Theory

III. Applications

Appendix A. General Solutions and Discussion of the Computer Program for Nitroxides

Appendix B. Computer Program for Slow Tumbling Nitroxides in Isotropic Liquids


4. Biradicals as Spin Probes

I. Introduction

II. The Triplet State

III. Biradicals with Hyperfine Interactions

IV. Spin Relaxation

V. Conclusions

Appendix A. The Spin Hamiltonian

Appendix B. The Linewidths for a Nitroxide Biradical


5. The Chemistry of Spin Labels

I. The Stability of the Paramagnetic Nitroxide Group in Spin Labels

II. The Synthesis of Spin Labels

III. Experimental Procedures for Preparation of Spin Labels


6. Molecular Structures of Nitroxides

I. X-Ray Analysis of Single Nitroxide Crystals

II. Experimental Results

III. Conclusions on the Conformations of Nitroxides

IV. ESR Spectra of Single Nitroxide Crystals


7. Instrumental Aspects of Spin Labeling

I. ESR Instrumentation and Instrumental Artifacts

II. The Use of Computers to Process Spin Labeling Data


8. The Use of Spin Labels for Studying the Structure and Function of Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Reagents for Spin Labeling Enzymes

III. Laboratory Techniques for Spin Labeling Enzymes

IV. Information Obtainable from Spin-Labeled Enzymes

V. Detailed Studies of Spin-Labeled Enzymes

VI. Future Possibilities


9. Spin-Label-Induced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Studies of Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Nuclear Spin Relaxation

III. Measurement of Relaxation Times

IV. Enzyme Studies

V. Conclusions


10. Anisotropic Motion in Liquid Crystalline Structures

I. Classification of Liquid Crystals

II. The Relevance of Spin Probes to the Investigation of Liquid Crystals

III. Anisotropic Motion of Spin Probes in Liquid Crystals

IV. Nitroxide Spin Probe Investigations of Liquid Crystalline Mesophases


11. Oriented Lipid Systems as Model Membranes

I. Types of System

II. Nature of the Spectra

III. Applications

IV. Conclusion


12. Lipid Spin Labels in Biological Membranes

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Motion in Membranes

III. Characterizing Macroscopic Order

IV. Polarity Profile

V. Measuring the Fraction of Membrane Lipids in the Fluid Bilayer

VI. Lipid-Protein Interactions in Membranes


13. Molecular Motion in Biological Membranes

I. Introduction

II. "Fluid" Membranes

III. Lateral Phase Separations

IV. Lateral Diffusion

V. Membrane Function

VI. The Flexibility Gradient

VII. Membrane Fusion

Appendix A. Rotational Correlation Times

Appendix B. Direct Experimental Evidence for a Phospholipid Spin Label Tilt


Appendix I. Simulated X-Band Spectra—Isotropic Tumbling

Appendix II. Principal Values of the g and Hyperfine Tensors for Several Nitroxides Reported to Date

Appendix III. Commercial Sources of Spin Labeling Equipment and Supplies

Appendix IV. Practical Considerations for the Calculation of Order Parameters for Fatty Acid or Phospholipid Spin Labels in Membranes

Appendix V. Symbols and Abbreviations



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© Academic Press 1976
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Lawrence J. Berliner

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