COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Spectrophotometry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123860224, 9780123860231

Spectrophotometry, Volume 46

1st Edition

Accurate Measurement of Optical Properties of Materials

Series Volume Editors: Thomas Germer Joanne Zwinkels Benjamin Tsai
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123860224
eBook ISBN: 9780123860231
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th June 2014
Page Count: 560
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Opening Remarks
  • 1.2 Uncertainties
  • 1.3 Overview

Chapter 2: Theoretical Concepts in Spectrophotometric Measurements

  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Radiometric Quantities
  • 2.3 Relationship Between Radiometric and Electromagnetic Quantities
  • 2.4 The Spectrophotometric Quantities
  • 2.5 Polarization
  • 2.6 Reflection and Transmission from Flat Surfaces
  • 2.7 Diffuse Scattering

Chapter 3: Dispersive Methods

  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 General Description
  • 3.3 Spectral Analyzer Design
  • 3.4 Wavelength Calibration
  • 3.5 Stray Light
  • 3.6 Optical Radiation Sources
  • 3.7 Optical Radiation Detectors

Chapter 4: Fourier Transform Methods

  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction: Ideal Michelson Interferometer
  • 4.2 Real Fourier Transform Spectrometers
  • 4.3 Sources of Uncertainty and Their Reduction
  • 4.4 Measurement Applications
  • 4.5 Recommendations for Accurate FTS Measurements

Chapter 5: Regular Reflectance and Transmittance

  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Relevant Background Information
  • 5.3 Measurements Near-Normal Incidence
  • 5.4 Measurements at Oblique Incidence
  • 5.5 Measuring the Reflectance of Highly Reflecting Materials

Chapter 6: Diffuse Reflectance and Transmittance

  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Measurands
  • 6.3 Notation of Diffuse Reflection Geometries
  • 6.4 Integrating Spheres
  • 6.5 Absolute Sphere Methods for Measuring Diffuse Reflection
  • 6.6 Diffuse Reflection Standards
  • 6.7 Relative Sphere Methods for Measuring Diffuse Reflection
  • 6.8 Diffuse Transmittance Measurements

Chapter 7: Spectral Fluorescence Measurements

  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Fundamental Concepts and Terminology
  • 7.3 Measurement of Fluorescence Characteristics
  • 7.4 General Instrument Design and Measurement Considerations
  • 7.5 Specialized Instrument Designs and Measurement Methods
  • 7.6 Instrument Characteristics That Impact Spectral Fluorescence Measurements
  • 7.7 Sample Characteristics That Impact Fluorescence Measurements
  • 7.8 Standards for Spectral Fluorescence Measurements

Chapter 8: Angle-Resolved Diffuse Reflectance and Transmittance

  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Reference-Free Measurement Methods
  • 8.3 Instrument Characterization
  • 8.4 Goniometer Designs
  • 8.5 Uncertainty Analysis
  • 8.6 Normalization Schemes
  • 8.7 Special Conditions or Considerations
  • 8.8 Applications

Chapter 9: Spectral Emissivity Measurements

  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Measurement Methods
  • 9.3 Spectral Emissivity Measurements Near-Ambient Temperature
  • 9.4 Spectral Emissivity and Reflectance Measurements of Oxidized Metals
  • 9.5 Spectral Emissivity Measurements of Molten Metals at High Temperatures
  • 9.6 Spectral Emissivity Measurements of Ceramics

Chapter 10: Color and Appearance

  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Spectral Attributes—Color
  • 10.3 Color-Measuring Instruments
  • 10.4 Gonioapparent Materials
  • 10.5 Geometrical Attributes

Chapter 11: The Use of Spectrophotometry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry
  • 11.3 Quality System for the Analytical Laboratory
  • 11.4 UV and Visible Spectrophotometry
  • 11.5 NIR Spectrometry
  • 11.6 Mid-IR Spectrometry
  • 11.7 Fluorescence Spectrometry
  • 11.8 Where Next?

Chapter 12: Spectrophotometry Applications: Remote Sensing

  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
  • 12.3 The Remote Sensing of Clouds in the Earth's Atmosphere
  • 12.4 The Retrieval of Snow Properties
  • 12.5 Volcanic Unrest
  • 12.6 Calibration
  • 12.7 Summary
  • Acknowledgments

Chapter 13: Microspectrophotometry

  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Microspectrophotometer Instrument Design and Construction
  • 13.3 Using the MSP System
  • 13.4 Current Applications of MSP in Industry and Research
  • 13.5 Conclusion


This volume is an essential handbook for anyone interested in performing the most accurate spectrophotometric or other optical property of materials measurements. The chapter authors were chosen from the leading experts in their respective fields and provide their wisdom and experience in measurements of reflectance, transmittance, absorptance, emittance, diffuse scattering, color, and fluorescence. The book provides the reader with the theoretical underpinning to the methods, the practical issues encountered in real measurements, and numerous examples of important applications.

Key Features

  • Written by the leading international experts from industry, government, and academia
  • Written as a handbook, with in depth discussion of the topics
  • Focus on making the most accurate and reproducible measurements
  • Many practical applications and examples


Physicists, materials scientists, engineers and quality controllers who need to perform precise and accurate spectrophotometry of the optical properties of materials


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2014
24th June 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Series Volume Editors

Thomas Germer

Thomas Germer

Thomas A. Germer received a B.A. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1985. In 1992, he received a Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University in the field of surface electron spectroscopies and surface photochemistry. An interest in optics at surfaces led him to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he held a postdoctoral associateship from 1992 to 1995, performing research in picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved measurements of surface chemical and physical dynamics. He joined the NIST staff as a physicist in the 1995. Since then, he has led the NIST program on light scattering and diffraction from surfaces. His work has earned him the Department of Commerce Bronze and Silver awards, The NIST Chapter of Sigma Xi Young Scientist Award, and Fellow of the SPIE, and he has served as a topical editor for Applied Optics. He has published over 100 articles and has been granted two patents. He developed the SCATMECH library of scattering codes.

Affiliations and Expertise

NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

Joanne Zwinkels

Joanne C. Zwinkels is a Principal Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). She received her PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Alberta (1983) with specialization in the infrared optical properties of solids. In 1984, she joined the NRC Division of Physics to work in the field of spectrophotometry and from 1991 to 2009 was the Group Leader for Photometry and Radiometry. Her research activities involve the development of new reference instrumentation, standards and procedures for high-accuracy spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry and color and appearance measurements. Her accomplishments include the development of a reference spectrophotometer for regular transmittance measurements, a reference spectrofluorimeter for high-accuracy surface fluorescence measurements, and is currently extending fluorescence measurement capabilities to other geometries and applications by the development of a reference goniospectrofluorimeter. Joanne is actively involved in international standardization activities and currently serves as Chair of the Strategic Planning Working Group of the Consultative Committee of Photometry and Radiometry, International Convenor of ISO TC6/WG3 (Paper, board and pulps: optical properties), and Associate Director of CIE Division 2 (Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation). Joanne is a recipient of the NRC Outstanding Achievement Award for Leadership (2006) and of the 2010 Macbeth Award given out biannually by the Inter-Society Color Council (ISCC) for outstanding contributions in color science and technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Research Council Canada, Ontario, Canada

Benjamin Tsai

Benjamin K. Tsai graduated from Brigham Young University with a BSME degree in 1987. Next, he obtained a MSME degree in 1990 at Purdue University by completing his thesis on “Dual-wavelength Radiation Thermometry: Emissivity Compensation Algorithms.” In 1993 he finished a PhD degree at Purdue University with a dissertation entitled, “Macroscopic Spread Function Analysis for Subsurface Scattering in Semitransparent Materials.” Since that time, he has worked in the Sensor Science Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. His interests and projects have included development of a new irradiance scale, developing the ambient background infrared calibration laboratory, setting up high heat flux calibrations, making accurate temperature measurements in rapid thermal processing, modeling diffraction effects, performing low-temperature radiance temperature and spectrophotometric calibrations, evaluating skin reflectance, understanding ageing effects in ceramics, setting up a synchrotron beamline, and improving spectrophotometry in the SWIR using extend InGaAs detectors.

Affiliations and Expertise

NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA