Spatial Learning Strategies - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123526205, 9781483260686

Spatial Learning Strategies

1st Edition

Techniques, Applications, and Related Issues

Editors: Charles D. Holley Donald F. Dansereau
eBook ISBN: 9781483260686
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th July 1984
Page Count: 350
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Description

Spatial Learning Strategies: Techniques, Applications, and Related Issues reviews the state of the art in spatial learning strategies and suggests ways in which such strategies (for example, spatial and semantic-network representations) may be more powerfully instantiated in text design and technology applications. Some of the most promising work in the field of learning strategies is documented.

Comprised of 15 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to some of the theoretical underpinnings of spatial learning strategies as well as selected theories of information processing. The next section contains reports on specific learner-oriented techniques that have been developed to improve the performances of students with respect to text processing. The discussion then turns to reports on specific techniques that have been developed and applied to other types of processing tasks (for example, test taking, problem solving) or to teacher-author communication, including text analysis and instructional strategies. The application of networking as a learning strategy to hearing-impaired students is also considered, along with schematizing, mapping, and concept structuring. The book concludes by assessing the implications of spatial strategies for education and applied research.

This monograph will be of interest to behaviorists, cognitive and educational psychologists, teachers, school administrators, and policymakers.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Part I Overview and Theoretical Perspectives

Chapter 1 The Development of Spatial Learning Strategies

Introduction

Semantic Memory Structures

Semantic Memory Processes

Types of Nonlinear Representations Explored with Learners

Three Unconstrained Representational Systems

Summary and Overview

References

Chapter 2 A Theoretical Framework for Spatial Learning Strategies

What is Special about Spatial?

Knowledge and Spatial Representation

Task Analysis: A Competence Model

Process of Text Understanding

Incomplete Understanding and Reasoning

Spatial Learning Strategies

Summary

References

Chapter 3 The Role of Spatial Strategies in Processing and Remembering Text: A Cognitive-Information-Processing Analysis

Studying Text: Historical Perspective on the Reader and Research

Comprehending and Remembering Text: A Selective Review

Analysis of Processing Promoted or Required by Spatial Strategies

Evaluation of Spatial Strategies for Studying Text

Directions for the Future

References

Part II Spatial Strategies: Techniques and Evidence

Chapter 4 Networking: The Technique and the Empirical Evidence

Node-Arc Representations of Long-Term Memory

Networking as a Learning Strategy

Training the Networking Technique

Empirical Studies of Networking

Other Applications and Associated Techniques

Summary

References

Chapter 5 Networking: Application with Hearing-1mpaired Students

Introduction

Networking: Rationale

Learning Versus Comprehending

Networking and Reading Comprehension

Networking and Reading Comprehension: A Revised Approach

Summary

References

Chapter 6 Concept Structuring: The Technique and Empirical Evidence

Introduction

Anatomy of the Problem

ConStruct Procedure

Empirical Evidence

Instructional Suggestions

Conclusion

References

Chapter 7 Schematizing: Technique and Applications

Schematizing: Background

The Technique of Schematizing

The Study Skills Course: Studying via Schematizing

Additional Educational Applications of Schematizing

The Effectiveness of Schematization: A Demonstration

Discussion

References

Chapter 8 Schematizing: The Empirical Evidence

Learning by Schematizing: An Overview

The Series of Studies

Findings

Discussion

References

Chapter 9 Mapping: Representing Informative Text Diagrammatically

Introduction

The Proposition

Text Units

Text Frames

Strategies for Mapping

Applications of Mapping

References

Part III Related Applications of Spatial Strategies

Chapter 10 Mapping as a Testing and Diagnostic Device

Diagnosis of Learning through Test Errors

Inadequacies of Traditional Test Formats

Text Maps and Map Tests

Research on Map Tests

Technical Characteristics of Map Tests

Tentative Conclusions

References

Chapter 11 The Representation of Knowledge: Curricular and Instructional Implications for Science Teaching

Introduction

Knowledge Representation and Science Curricula

Conceptual Knowledge Representation

Procedural Knowledge Representation

Curricular Implications for Knowledge Representation

Surveying Discipline Content

Selecting and Organizing Content for Instruction

Related Uses of Network Representations in Science Education

Conclusion

References

Chapter 12 Evolving a Description of Text through Mapping

Problems in the Analysis of Informative Discourse

Relational Mapping

Problems with Relational Mapping

Potential of Relational Mapping

References

Chapter 13 Graphic Postorganizers: A Spatial Learning Strategy

Introduction

An Operational Definition

Historical Perspective

Research Results

Discussion

Conclusion

Part IV Spatial Strategies: A Critique

Chapter 14 Spatial Strategies: Implications for Applied Research

Introduction

Categories of Learning Strategies

Where Do Spatial Learning Strategies Fit in the Categorical Scheme?

General Methodological Issues Involved in Conducting Spatial-Learning-Strategies Research

References

Chapter 15 Spatial Strategies: Critique and Educational Implications

Spatial Strategies: Personal Observations

Why Do Spatial Strategies Work? What Are the Key Features?

Teaching Spatial Strategies

Who Benefits from Using Spatial Strategies?

What Kinds of Learning Benefit from Spatial Strategies?

For What Kinds of Material Is Spatial Structuring Most Useful?

What Are the Costs of a Spatial Strategy?

Uses of Spatial Strategies by Teachers

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
350
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483260686

About the Editor

Charles D. Holley

Donald F. Dansereau