Presidential Foreword. Preface. Acknowledgements. Introduction: approaches to spatial database transfer standards: an introduction (H. Moellering). Australia. Australian standards for spatial data transfer (A.L. Clarke). Austria. The Austrian standard for digital exchange of geographic-geometrical data (W. Kainz). Canada. Canadian efforts to develop spatial data exchange standards (T.V. Evangelatos, M. Mosaad Allam). People's Republic of China. The efforts of GIS standardization in China (Du Daosheng, Du Quingyun). Finland. The standardization of geographical data interchange in Finland (A. Rainio). France. La normalisation des échanges d'informations géographiques en France (F. Salgé). Federal Republic of Germany. German developments on spatial data exchange standards (H. Brüggemann). Hungary. Standardization efforts in Hungary (P. Divényi). Japan. The standardized efforts for digital cartographic data in Japan (Minoru Akuyama et al.). New Zealand. Standardization of spatial data exchange in New Zealand (P. Van Berkel). Norway. Standardization efforts in Norway (O.M. Østensen). South Africa. The South African standard for the exchange of digital geo–referenced information (A.K. Cooper, D.G. Clarke). Sweden. The Swedish standardization project within the field of GIS (C.-G. Persson, T. Cederholm). Switzerland. GIS/LIS data exchange standards: actual situation and developments in Switzerland (C. Eidenbenz). United Kingdom. The national transfer format (M. Sowton). United States. The United States spatial data transfer standard (H.J. Rossmeissl, R.D. Rugg). CERCO (Comité Européen des Responsables de la Cartographie Officielle
Since the 1960's individuals and organisations throughout the world have been building geographic databases used in conjunction with geographic hardware and software systems to collect, analyse, display and archive digital data. Through the years it was recognised that efficiencies could be gained if the geographic database built by one group could be used by multiple users across different computer systems and formats. Therefore, it was acknowledged that spatial database transfer standards were needed to facilitate the exchange and transfer of digital geographic data.
Throughout the 1980's several organisations worldwide began working on the problem of producing spatial database transfer standards. As this work was initiated, research workers began to informally compare notes and developments. The International Cartographic Association [ICA], recognising the worldwide importance of standards, organised a Standards Working Group. The initial goal of this working group was to produce a monograph reporting on the present state of development in digital database transfer standards.
This book is a unique collection of reports by individual nations and international organisations that describe existing geographic standards and summarize efforts to develop geographic database transfer standards worldwide.
- © Pergamon 1991
- 7th August 1991
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- Hardcover ISBN:
ICA Working Group on Digital Cartographic Transfer Standards