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Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Technology presents the theory and practice of space collision avoidance. The title gives models of time and space environment, their impact on high-precision orbit prediction, considers optimal orbit determination methods and models in different warning stages, and establishes basic models for warning and avoidance. Chapters present an outline of spacecraft collision warning strategy, elaborate on the basics of orbital calculation for collision avoidance, consider space object detection technology, detail space environment and object orbit, give a method for spacecraft collision warning orbit calculation, and finally, demonstrate a strategy for spacecraft collision warning and avoidance.
- Presents strategies, methods and real-world examples relating to space collision avoidance
- Considers time and space environment models in orbit prediction
- Gives optimal orbit determination methods and models for various warning stages
- Establishes and elaborates basic models for warning and avoidance
- Takes note of the current space environment for object detection and collision avoidance
Researchers and professionals working on the mechanics of space flight; aerospace and high-technology companies, including satellite manufacturers; space agencies and governmental organisations relating to space; consulting firms; postgraduate students working on space flight
Chapter 1 Outline of Spacecraft Collision Warning Strategy
1.1 Distribution and Characteristics of Space Objects 1.2 Characteristics and Hazards of Space Debris 1.3 Collision Warning of Spacecraft
Chapter 2 Basics of Orbital Calculation for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Objects
2.1 Basic Definitions and Transformation in Astronomy 2.1.1 Basic Concepts in Astronomy 2.1.2 Time Systems and Major Transformation Formula 2.1.3 Coordinate Systems and Major Transformation Formula 2.2 Space Object Orbit: Basic Definitions and Transformation 2.2.1 Space Object’s Two-body Motion in Space 2.2.2 Integration of Two-body Problem 2.2.3 Basic Conversion of Orbital Elements for Space Objects 2.2.4 Orbital Perturbations of Space Object
Chapter 3 Space Object Detection Technology
3.1 Overview 3.1.1 Ground-Based Detection 3.1.2 Space-Based Detection 3.2 Radar Measurement Technology 3.2.1 Radar Measurement Elements 3.2.2 Radar Measurement Data Modeling 3.2.3 Typical Space Surveillance Radar 3.3 Electro-optical Detection Technology 3.3.1 Principles of Electro-optical Detection 3.3.2 Electro-optical Telescopes Measurement Data Types and Positioning 3.3.3 Measurement Errors and Compensation Techniques of Telescopes 3.4 Public Correction Models for Measurement Data 3.4.1 The Partial Derivative of Each Measurement Element with Respect to the Space Object Position 3.4.2 Tropospheric Refraction Error Correction 3.4.3 Ionospheric Error Correction 3.4.4 General Relativistic Effect Error Correction 3.4.5 Vertical Deflection Correction 3.5 Relationship between Measured Data and Orbit Precision
Chapter 4 Space Environment and Object Orbit
4.1 Atmospheric Effect on Space Object Orbit 4.2 Atmospheric Density Model 4.2.1 Atmospheric Density Modeling Principle 4.2.2 Introduction of Current Atmospheric Density Models 4.3 Systematic Error and Random Error of Atmospheric Density Models 4.4 Prediction Confidence Level of Space Environment Parameters Influenced Atmospheric Density 4.4.1 Analysis of F10.7 Prediction Confidence Level 4.4.2 Analysis of Prediction Confidence Level 4.4.3 Impact of Environmental Parameters on Orbit Prediction Error 4.5 Calculation Strategy of Atmospheric Perturbation for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Warning Calculation 4.5.1 Resolving Atmospheric Damping Coefficient Absorbing Systematic Error 4.5.2 Application of Atmospheric Damping Coefficient and Analysis of Orbit Determination and Prediction Under Normal Geomagnetism Conditions 4.5.3 Application of Atmospheric Damping Coefficient and Analysis of Orbit Determination and Prediction Under Abnormal Geomagnetism Conditions
Chapter 5 Spacecraft Collision Warning Orbit Calculation Method
5.1 Precise Orbital Calculation Method 5.1.1 Orbital Parameters Optimal Estimation Method 5.1.2 Numerical Integration 5.1.3 Numerical Calculation of Precise Orbit 5.2 Catalogued Orbit Calculation Method 5.2.1 Simple Numerical Method (Simplified Dynamic Model 5.2.2 Cataloging Orbit Calculation with TLE 5.2.3 The Mean Elements Cataloging Orbit Calculation Method 5.2.4 Precision Alalysis
Chapter 6 Spacecraft Collision Warning and Avoidance Strategy
6.1 Collision Warning Calculation 6.1.1 Risky Object Screening 6.1.2 The Minimum Distance Calculation 6.1.3 The Collision Probability Method 6.2 The Method of Spacecraft Avoidance 6.2.1 Altitude Avoidance Method 6.2.2 Time Avoidance Method 6.3 Collision Warning Strategy for Spacecraft Safety Operation and Case Studies 6.3.1 Risky Objects Screening 6.3.2 Daily Warning Analysis 6.3.3 Precision Collision Warning 6.3.4 Avoidance Control
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2020
- 1st May 2020
- Academic Press
- Paperback ISBN:
Rongzhi Zhang is a senior researcher at the State Key Laboratory of Astronautics Dynamics in Xi’an, China. He has accumulated significant experience in spacecraft collision avoidance research and engineering, and has been involved with practical application of spacecraft collision avoidance to China’s space program.
Senior Researcher, State Key Laboratory of Astronautics Dynamics, Xi’an, China