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Space Safety and Human Performance - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081018699, 9780081018705

Space Safety and Human Performance

1st Edition

Editor in Chief: Tommaso Sgobba
Editors: Barbara Kanki Jean-Francois Clervoy Gro Sandal
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081018699
eBook ISBN: 9780081018705
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 10th November 2017
Page Count: 944
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Space Safety and Human Performance provides a comprehensive reference for engineers and technical managers within aerospace and high technology companies, space agencies, operators, and consulting firms. The book draws upon the expertise of the world’s leading experts in the field and focuses primarily on humans in spaceflight, but also covers operators of control centers on the ground and behavior aspects of complex organizations, thus addressing the entire spectrum of space actors.

During spaceflight, human performance can be deeply affected by physical, psychological and psychosocial stressors. Strict selection, intensive training and adequate operational rules are used to fight performance degradation and prepare individuals and teams to effectively manage systems failures and challenging emergencies. The book is endorsed by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS).

Key Features

  • Provides information on critical aspects of human performance in space missions
  • Addresses the issue of human performance, from physical and psychosocial stressors that can degrade performance, to selection and training principles and techniques to enhance performance
  • Brings together essential material on: cognition and human error; advanced analysis methods such as human reliability analysis; environmental challenges and human performance in space missions; critical human factors and man/machine interfaces in space systems design; crew selection and training; and organizational behavior and safety culture
  • Includes an endorsement by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS)


Aerospace engineers, systems engineering and safety managers working in space agencies, commercial space industry and consulting firms. Also suitable for use as a reference for senior and graduate level courses covering design and operations of space system

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction
Tommaso Sgobba, Barbara Kanki
1.1 Unsafe Acts and Latent Failures
1.2 Spaceflight Incidents and Close Calls Due to Human Error
Giovanni Canepa, Mario Ferrante, Tommaso Sgobba
1.3 Human Error Prevention
1.4 Beyond Earth Orbits
1.5 Book Structure

CHAPTER 2 Cognitive Functions and Human Error
Barbara G. Kanki
2.1 Crewmember Cognitive Function During Spaceflight
Bettina L. Beard
2.2 Human Error
Cynthia Null

CHAPTER 3 Workload and Fatigue
Brian F. Gore
3.1 Workload Measurement and Management in System Development
Brian F. Gore, Stephen M. Casner, Christopher D. Wickens
3.2 Workload and Fatigue
Ståle Pallesen, Bjørn Bjorvatn

CHAPTER 4 Spaceflight Environment
4.1 Accelerations
Claudio Moratto
4.2 Acoustics
Christopher S. Allen, Jerry R. Goodman, W. Ferdinand, D.E. Grosveld
4.3 Radiation
Martina Giraudo, Cesare Lobascio, Roberto Battiston
4.4 Microbial Contamination
Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Michael Roberts, Sarah Castro, Cherie Oubre, Koichi Makimura, Natalie Leys, Elisabeth Grohmann, Takashi Sugita, Tomoaki Ichijo, Masao Nasu

CHAPTER 5 Physiological Performance and Capabilities
Bettina L. Beard
5.1 Launch and Ascent
Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
5.2 On Orbit
Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
5.3 Re-Entry and Landing
Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
5.4 Return to Earth’s 1 G
Bettina L. Beard, Patricia M. Jones
5.5 Cardiovascular Physiology in Different Microgravity Environments
Ries Simons
5.6 Conclusion
Bettina L. Beard

CHAPTER 6 Psychological Resilience
Gro M. Sandal
6.1 Mission Factors
Dietrich Manzey
6.2 Individual State Factors
Dietrich Manzey
6.3 Individual Resilience
Gro M. Sandal, Nathan Smith
6.4 Team Resilience
Lauren B. Landon, Jamie D. Barrett
6.5 Team Emergent States and Outcomes
Lauren B. Landon, Jamie D. Barrett

CHAPTER 7 Human Factors Research Methods and Tools
Barbara G. Kanki
7.1 Task Analysis Techniques
Lee T. Ostrom, Cheryl Wilhelmsen
7.2 Critical Incident Technique and Process Mapping
Lee T. Ostrom, Cheryl Wilhelmsen
7.3 Digital Human Modeling
H.C. Dischinger, Jr.
7.4 Bed Rest
Oliver Angerer
7.5 Voice Stress Analysis
Bernd Johannes
7.6 Analog Mission Research
Gro M. Sandal, Nathan Smith, Gloria R. Leon

CHAPTER 8 System Safety and Accidents Prevention
8.1 System Safety
Nancy Leveson
8.2 Safety Design and Human Rating
Tommaso Sgobba
8.3 Risk Management and Acceptance
Tommaso Sgobba
8.4 Accident Model Based on System Theory
Nancy Leveson
8.5 Certification of Commercial Space Systems
Tommaso Sgobba
8.6 Organizing Space Operations’ Safety
Tommaso Sgobba, Paul Wilde
8.7 Lessons Learned Process
Stephanie Barr

CHAPTER 9 Human-System Interfaces Design
Tommaso Sgobba
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Spacecraft Cockpit Design
Michael C. Dorneich, Christopher Hamblin, Olu Olofinboba
9.3 Visual-Aural Alert Design
Anikó Sándor, Durand R. Begault
9.4 Seating Considerations for Spaceflight
Dustin Gohmert
9.5 Contact Hazards
Tommaso Sgobba

CHAPTER 10 Human Automation Interaction
10.1 Human Use of Automation
Victor Riley
10.2 Human-Machine Interaction
Paul C. Schutte
10.3 Unique Considerations for Human-Robotic Interaction in Human Spaceflight
Jessica J. Marquez

CHAPTER 11 Human Factors and Safety in EVA
Sudhakar Rajulu
11.1 Anthropometry and Sizing
Karen Young, Han Kim
11.2 Strength and Performance: EVA Suits Restrict Performance
Scott England, Elizabeth Benson
11.3 EVA Physiology
Jason Norcross
11.4 EVA Lighting and Visual Performance
James C. Maida
11.5 EVA Interfaces/mobility Aids
Elizabeth Benson
11.6 Spacesuit Acoustic Requirements
Christopher Allen

CHAPTER 12 Human Reliability Analysis Methods and Tools
Mónica Philippart
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Overview of the HRA Methodology
12.3 Factors that Influence Human Performance
12.4 HRA Methods for Space Systems
12.5 Improving Human Reliability and Mitigating Risk

CHAPTER 13 Human Factors in Mission Control Center
Tommaso Sgobba
13.1 Human Spaceflight Mission Control Center
J. Watts-Englert, D.D. Woods, E.S. Patterson
13.2 Resilient Anomaly Response in Mission Control Center
J. Watts-Englert, D.D. Woods, E.S. Patterson
13.3 Training of Human Spaceflight Controllers
Gary Dittemore, Christie Bertels
13.4 Human Factors in Launch Flight Safety
H. Poussin, L. Rochas, T. Vallée, R. Bertrand, J. Haber
13.5 Hazardous Commands’ Identification and Control
Tommaso Sgobba

CHAPTER 14 Organizational Factors and Safety Culture
Barbara G. Kanki, Alan Hobbs
Scope of the Chapter
Structure of the Chapter
14.1 Organizational Factors
Barbara G. Kanki, Alan Hobbs, Timothy S. Barth
14.2 Safety Culture
Barbara G. Kanki, Alan Hobbs, Tracy Dillinger
14.3 Safety Culture Guide
Tracey Dillinger, David King, Gregory Alston

CHAPTER 15 Habitability and Habitat Design
T. Sgobba, I. Schlacht
15.1 Habitability
Irene Schlacht
15.2 General Habitat Design
Irene Schlacht, Tommaso Sgobba
15.3 Habitat Design—Special Topic: Noise Control
Jerry R. Goodman, Ferdinand W. Grosveld, Christopher S. Allen
15.4 Habitat Design—Special Topic: Radiation Shielding
Riccardo Musenich, Martina Giraudo, Valerio Calvelli, Roberto Battiston

CHAPTER 16 Selection and Training
Tommaso Sgobba, Jean-Bruno Marciacq
16.1 Selection
16.2 Training
Jean-Bruno Marciacq

CHAPTER 17 Medical and Psychological Mission Support
Alejandro Garbino, Richard T. Jennings
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Preflight Preparation (Post Selection)
17.3 Training Risks
17.4 Launch/Landing
17.5 Orbital Phase
17.6 Rehabilitation
17.7 Beyond Earth Orbit
17.8 Conclusion

CHAPTER 18 Human Factors’ Mishap Investigation
Katherine A. Wilson
18.1 Why Human Factors in Mishap Investigations?
18.2 What Is a Mishap?
18.3 The Mishap Investigative Process
18.4 The Human Factors’ Investigation
18.5 Human Factors’ Investigative Frameworks
18.6 Data Collection
18.7 Challenges of the Human Factors’ Investigation
18.8 Conclusion

Appendix A: Habitat Volumetric Dimensions Allocation
Appendix B: NASA Human Capability Limits
Appendix C: Appendix C for Chapter 14
Appendix D: Quiet Fan Acoustic Benefits in the ISS Russian Segment
Appendix E: Human Factors in the SpaceShipTwo Investigation


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
10th November 2017
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor in Chief

Tommaso Sgobba

Until October 2012 Tommaso Sgobba has been responsible for flight safety at the European Space Agency (ESA), including human-rated systems, spacecraft re-entries, space debris, use of nuclear power sources, and planetary protection. He joined the European Space Agency in 1989, after 13 years in the aeronautical industry. Initially he supported the developments of the Ariane 5 launcher, several earth observation and meteorological satellites, and the early phase of the Hermes spaceplane. Later he became product assurance and safety manager for all European manned missions on Shuttle, MIR station, and for the European research facilities for the International Space Station. He chaired for 10 years the ESA ISS Payload Safety Review Panel, He was also instrumental in setting up the ESA Re-entry Safety Review Panel.

Tommaso Sgobba holds an M.S. in Aeronautical Engineering from the Polytechnic of Turin (Italy), where he was also professor of space system safety (1999-2001). He has published several articles and papers on space safety, and co-edited the text book “Safety Design for Space Systems”, published in 2009 by Elsevier, that was also published later in Chinese. He co-edited the book entitled “The Need for an Integrated Regulatory Regime for Aviation and Space”, published by Springer in 2011. He is member of the editorial board of the Space Safety Magazine.

Tommaso Sgobba received the NASA recognition for outstanding contribution to the International Space Station in 2004, and the prestigious NASA Space Flight Awareness (SFA) Award in 2007.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS) and former Head of the Independent Safety Office, European Space Agency (ESA), Noordwijk, The Netherlands

About the Editors

Barbara Kanki

Dr. Barbara Kanki served as a Research Scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center (Moffett Field, California) in the Human Systems Integration Division. Over her tenure of more than 25 years, she conducted human performance research in support of NASA Aviation Safety Programs, Human Factors and Performance for Space Safety, and a variety of Human Factors programs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In a consulting role she worked with other high risk industries such as the medical and nuclear power fields. Dr. Kanki’s research activities have ranged across human factors topics such as crew communication and coordination, organizational factors, information and workload management for aviation operations including flight crews, ground control, and technical operations. Her research interests include human-centered procedure and document design, integration and training for new technologies as well as safety topics such as voluntary reporting and event investigation. She has supported the space side of NASA in human and socio-technical risk factors, team training, and procedure design primarily for the space shuttle program at Kennedy Space Center and has participated on NASA mishap boards, safety assessments and National Transportation Safety Board human performance investigations. After retiring from NASA in 2014, Dr. Kanki continues to contribute to NASA projects and FAA/industry groups, and is the current chair of the Human Performance working group of the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety. Dr. Kanki received her doctorate in Behavioral Sciences from the University of Chicago, where she specialized in the areas of communication and group dynamics. She continues to author, edit, and review books, journals, and papers on human factors topics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired, NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA

Jean-Francois Clervoy

Jean –Francois Clervoy, is an ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut from France and brigadier general from DGA (French Defense Procurement Agency), served as a mission specialist twice aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-66 to study the atmosphere, and on mission STS-84 to re-supply the Russian space station Mir, and as a flight engineer aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-103 to repair the Hubble Space Telescope. He has logged 28 days and 3 hours in 439 earth orbits. Since 2001 he has worked as a senior advisor astronaut for the ESA human space flight programs including the ATV Jules Verne project to re-supply the International Space Station. Still active in the European astronaut corps, he works also as Chairman of Novespace, a company which organizes parabolic flights with its Airbus ZERO-G for microgravity research and for public weightlessness discovery flights.

Gro Sandal

Dr. Sandal is a professor of psychology at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen in Norway where she is a leader of a unit, the Society and Workplace Diversity Research Group. Her fields of expertise are work and organizational psychology, stress and coping, and cross-cultural psychology. Since the early 1990s, Gro Mjeldheim Sandal has been the Principal Investigator of large scales research projects funded by the European Space Agency focusing on psychological reactions during human spaceflights. The projects have included a number of simulation studies of multicultural crews isolated in hyperbaric chambers and personnel operating in other extreme environments (Antarctic research stations, polar expeditions, military settings, oil and gas-platforms). She is currently leading a psychological experiment on the ISS in collaboration with colleagues working for the Russian Space Agency. Her recent research has focused on the implications of individual and cultural differences in values for efficient co-working among crews in space as well as among ground-based personnel. A major aim of her research in space and analogue environments is to gain knowledge that can be applied for selection, training, and in-flight support.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of psychology, University of Bergen, Norway

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