Sorghum Biochemistry

Sorghum Biochemistry

An Industrial Perspective

1st Edition - June 1, 2016

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  • Authors: CV Ratnavathi, Jagannath Patil, UD Chavan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128031827
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128031575

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Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective explores the many uses for sorghum in industry and biofuels. Not only does it offer a detailed understanding of the physical and biochemical qualities of the grain, it also takes an in-depth look at the role sorghum plays in such industries as brewing and ethanol production and the mechanics of post-harvest processing and value addition. Sorghum has long been an important staple in Africa and Asia, but its value goes far beyond its uses in human and animal consumption. Sorghum is also used in many industries, including waxes, packing material, wall board, ethanol, beverages, and brewing, and one variety called sweet sorghum has also been used as a bioenergy crop. Sorghum Biochemistry: An Industrial Perspective offers a closer look at how the grain is used in such a variety of ways, and how we can continue to optimize its potential.

Key Features

  • Provides detailed biochemical studies on grain sorghum to inform researchers grappling with similar issues
  • Offers foundational information on the quality and composition of sorghum as a grain
  • Covers a variety of uses for sorghum in many industries, including food and beverage, energy, and brewing
  • Includes photos and illustrations to enhance the understanding of processes and sorghum biochemistry


Researchers involved in postharvest technology and value addition, cereal chemists and also pathologists and toxicologists. This can also be a reference book for students doing post graduate study in post-harvest technology and food science, food processing technology

Table of Contents

    • Biography
    • Introduction
      • References
    • Chapter 1. Sorghum Grain Quality
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Comparison with Other Cereals
      • 1.3 Dough and Roti Making Quality of Sorghum
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 2. Malting and Brewing of Sorghum
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Use of Sorghum as Malt
      • 2.3 Malting Studies
      • 2.4 Sugars and Starch
      • 2.5 Lager Beer From 100% Sorghum
      • 2.6 Use of Sorghum as Adjunct
      • 2.7 Nonalcoholic Beverages and Weaning Foods
      • 2.8 Fermentation
      • 2.9 Fermentation Studies
      • 2.10 Use of Malted and Fermented Meals in Bhakari/Roti Making
      • 2.11 Summary
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 3. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sorghum
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 In Vitro Studies on the Aflatoxin Elaboration in Sorghum Through Aspergillus parasiticus
      • 3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Deteriorated Sorghum Grain
      • 3.4 Enzymatic Changes in Sorghum Genotypes During A. Parasiticus (NRRL 2999) Infestation
      • 3.5 Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics Extracted from Sorghum Genotypes on the Growth of A. parasiticus (NRRL 2999) and Aflatoxin Production
      • 3.6 Induction of Chitinase in Response to Aspergillus Infection in Sorghum
      • 3.7 Inhibition of AFB1 Production by an Antifungal Component, Eugenol on Sorghum Grains
      • 3.8 Pearling of Black Sorghum
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Sorghum Uses—Ethanol
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 History of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.3 Distribution of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.4 Productivity of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.5 Accumulation of Dry Matter in Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.6 Sucrose Metabolism in Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.7 Agronomy of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.8 Maximization of Biomass in Sweet Sorghum Through Genetic Enhancement of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.9 Maximization of Biomass in Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.10 Resistance to Diseases and Pests
      • 4.11 Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Resistance to Key Pests (Shoot Fly, Corn Plant Hopper, and Stem Borer) in Relation to Different Dates of Planting
      • 4.12 Genetic Improvement of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.13 Genetic Variability
      • 4.14 Culm Characteristics
      • 4.15 Juice Yield and Quality
      • 4.16 Studies on Juice Quality (NRCS, Hyderabad)
      • 4.17 Improvements Achieved in Juice Quality of Sweet Sorghum: Determination of Sucrose in Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.18 Juice Quality in Sweet Sorghum at Different Crop Growth Stages
      • 4.19 Juice Quality in Sweet Sorghum as a Vegetative Crop
      • 4.20 Phenology and Biomass Productivity
      • 4.21 Grain Yield
      • 4.22 Grain Quality
      • 4.23 Resistance to Diseases and Pests
      • 4.24 Resistance to Stress Conditions
      • 4.25 Easy to Strip Stalk
      • 4.26 Futuristic Crop Model
      • 4.27 Status of Sweet Sorghum Breeding
      • 4.28 Utilization of Sweet Sorghum
      • 4.29 Stalk Processing
      • 4.30 Crop Retention and Stalk Storage
      • 4.31 Fermentation
      • 4.32 Ethanol Yield
      • 4.33 Alcohol from Sweet Sorghum (NRCS, Hyderabad)
      • 4.34 Recovery of Ethanol at Different Crop Growth Stages With Different Yeast Strains (NRCS, Hyderabad)
      • 4.35 Total Alcohol Recovery (Stalk and grain) in Sweet Sorghum (PDKV, Akola)
      • 4.36 Pilot Scale Evaluation of Ethanol Production From Sweet Sorghum Stalk Juice (NRCS, Hyderabad)
      • 4.37 SWOT Analysis on Production of Ethanol From Sweet Sorghum (NRCS, Hyderabad)
      • 4.38 Ethanol Production From Damaged Grain
      • 4.39 Sorghum Grain-Based Potable Alcohol – Global Experiences
      • 4.40 Dynamics of Ethanol Utilization in Various Demand Quarters
      • 4.41 Feedstocks for Manufacturing of Ethanol—An Overview
      • 4.42 Technical Suitability of Molded Sorghum Grain in Ethanol Production
      • 4.43 Economic Prospects of Alcohol Production from Sorghum Grain
      • 4.44 Effluent/Waste Water Treatment for Grain Alcohol Distillery
      • 4.45 Biomethanation, Aeration, and Ferti-Irrigation
      • 4.46 Value-Added Product: DDGS
      • 4.47 Marketing Chain of Sorghum Grain
      • 4.48 Advantages Accruing from Backward Integration
      • 4.49 SWOT Analysis of Sorghum Grain as Raw Material for Potable Alcohol
      • 4.50 New Initiatives
      • 4.51 Conclusions
      • 4.52 Recommendations on the Industrial Uses of Molded Sorghum Grain
      • 4.53 Energy Balance in Bioenergy Production
      • 4.54 Sugar Production
      • 4.55 Sweet Sorghum for Grain and Fodder
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 5. Sorghum Syrup and Other by Products
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Syrup Production
      • 5.3 Processing of Syrup
      • 5.4 Production of Natural Syrup From Sweet Sorghum Stalk Juice (NARI, Phaltan, India) (Small Scale)
      • 5.5 Analysis of Sample of Madhura by CFTRI, Mysore and ITALAB Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai
      • 5.6 Manufacturing the Syrup (Large Scale)
      • 5.7 Filtering and Settling the Juice
      • 5.8 Evaporating the Juice
      • 5.9 Concentrating the Syrup
      • 5.10 Finishing the Syrup
      • 5.11 Semi Syrup
      • 5.12 Care of the Evaporator
      • 5.13 General Sanitation
      • 5.14 Labeling Your Containers
      • 5.15 Using Enzymes for Processing Syrup
      • 5.16 Enzymes
      • 5.17 Enzyme Activity
      • 5.18 Starch Isolation and methods adopted
      • 5.19 Estimation of Glucose
      • 5.20 Starch and Maltodextrin From Sorghum
      • 5.21 Glucose and High Fructose Syrup
      • 5.22 Studies on Standardization of Isomerization of Glucose Syrup
      • References
      • Further Reading
    • Chapter 6. Sorghum Processing and Utilization
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Abrasive Decortication and Hammer Milling
      • 6.2 Roller Milling
      • 6.3 Grain Processing
      • 6.4 Primary Processing
      • 6.5 Secondary Processing
      • 6.6 Production of Processed Foods Through Machines
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 358
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: June 1, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128031827
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128031575

About the Authors

CV Ratnavathi

Dr. Ratnavathi has a PhD in Biochemistry from Osmani University, and currently serves as the Principal Investigator on the NFBSFARA project on “Studies on sucrose accumulation in sweet sorgum for efficient ethanol production,” while also leading a research project from the DBT on the therapeutic properties of sorghum. He has led several other externally funded projects and was instrumental in establishing a food safety laboratory under the NAIP Millet Value chain project. He has developed 30 sorghum recipes and 10 semi-processed products, and has published numerous journal articles, books, and book chapters.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Scientist, Biochemistry and PI of NFBSFARA project on sweet sorghum, PI of DBT funded project on functional foods of sorghum

Jagannath Patil

Jagannath Patil
Professor Patil is a leader in sorghum research and has developed improved varieties of it, among other crops. He has also conceptualized innovative technologies for conservation and productivity in crops.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Research Management, Directorate of Sorghum Research, Hyderabad (ICAR)

UD Chavan

UD Chavan
Dr. Chavan worked as Senior Research Assistant in the Department of Biochemistry and Food Science and Technology at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri from 1988 to 2000. During his Ph. D., he worked as Technician/Research Associate at Atlantic Cool Climate Crop Research Center and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. He has received several awards and fellowships, including the International Scholar Award for his PhD work at Memorial University and a Lifetime Achievement Award for his contribution to post-harvest technology. He has written 110 research papers, 105 articles, and 24 book in multiple languages.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Cereal Food Technologist, Department of Food Science and Technology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Dist, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra

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