Solvent Extraction

Solvent Extraction

Classical and Novel Approaches

1st Edition - August 31, 2011

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  • Author: Vladimir Kislik
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444537782
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444537799

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Description

The main challenge in modern solvent extraction separation is that most techniques are mainly empirical, specific and particular for narrow fields of practice and require a large degree of experimentation. This concise and modern book provides a complete overview of both solvent extraction separation techniques and the novel and unified competitive complexation/solvation theory. This novel and unified technique presented in the book provides a key for a preliminary quantitative prediction of suitable extraction systems without experimentation, thus saving researchers time and resources.

Key Features

  • Analyzes and compares both classical and new competitive models and techniques
  • Offers a novel and unified competitive complexation / solvation theory that permits researchers to standardize some parameters, which decreases the need for experimentation at R&D
  • Presents examples of applications in multiple disciplines such as chemical, biochemical, radiochemical, pharmaceutical and analytical separation
  • Written by an outstanding scientist who is prolific in the field of separation science

Readership

Professionals, including post-docs, and post-graduate students in separation research. University libraries in Chemisry, Radiochemistry, Biochemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Chemical Technology, Pharmacy, and Hydrometallurgy; Libraries of R&D Laboratories, Departments of Industrial Companies, involving in the development of separation and purification technologies in Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical Industry, and Hydrometallurgy; and Engineering Technological Institutions

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    Introduction

    PART I. Conventional (Classical) Principles and Practice of Solvent Extraction

    1. Modern (Classical) Fundamental Principles of Solvent Extraction
    1 Introduction
    2 Solvent Extraction By Solvation
    3 Solvent Extraction with Chemical Reactions (By Complexation)
    4 Driving Forces of Solvent Extraction
    5 Influence of Kinetics Factors
    6 Selectivity
    7 Factors Affecting Extraction Process
    8 Module Design Considerations
    9 Experimental Determination of Distribution Ratios
    10 Summarizing Remarks

    2. Principles of Solvent Extraction of Organic and Mineral Acids
    1 Introduction
    2 Extraction of Acids by Carbon-Bonded Oxygen-Donor Extractants and Substituted Hydrocarbon Solvents
    3 Phosphorus-bonded Oxygen Donor Extractants
    4 Aliphatic Amine Extractants
    5 Extraction of Strong (Inorganic) Acids
    6 Summarizing Remarks

    3. Chemistry of Metal Solvent Extraction
    1 Introduction
    2 Metal Extraction by Cation Exchangers (Acidic Extractants)
    3 Metal Extraction by Anion Exchangers (Ion Pair Formation)
    4 Extraction Through Formation of H-Bonding and Solvating Complexes
    5 Extraction Through Mixed Complex Formation
    6 Extractable Complexation of Monovalent Metals
    7 Extraction with Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    4. Engineering Development of Solvent Extraction Processes
    1 Introduction
    2 Extraction Stage
    3 Stripping Organic Solutions
    4 Extraction Efficiency
    5 Equipment Design for Continuous Extraction-Stripping Processes
    6 Solvent Losses
    7 Economical Considerations
    8 Problems with Scale-up to Industrial Systems

    5. Examples of Application of Solvent Extraction Techniques in Chemical, Radiochemical, Biochemical, Pharmaceutical, Analytical Separations, and Wastewater Treatment
    1 Introduction
    2 Extraction in Hydrometallurgy (Metals Extraction)
    3 Solvent Extraction in Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
    4 Solvent Extraction in Analytical Chemistry
    5 Application of Solvent Extraction in Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Separations
    6 Application of Solvent Extraction in Organic and Biofuels Separation
    7 Solvent Extraction in Recovery of Waste and Wastewater Treatment

    PART II. Novel Competitive Complexation/Solvation Theory (CCST) of Solvent Extraction: Principles and Practice
    Introduction

    6. Backgrounds of the Competitive Complexation/Solvation Theory of Solvent Extraction
    1 Introduction
    2 Complexation Through the H-Bonding and Proton Transfer
    3 Distribution Isotherm
    4 Modified Competitive Preferential Solvation Theory
    5 Electronic Acid–Base Theory and Amphoterity
    6 Aggregation

    7. Competitive Complexation/Solvation Theory of Solvent Extraction
    1 Basic Statements
    2 Extraction Systems with Low Solute Concentrations in Organic Phase
    3 Systems with Medium Concentrations of the Solute
    4 Systems with High Solute Concentrations
    5 Comparison of Conventional and Presented Theories Description
    6 Summarizing Remarks for the CCST

    8. CCST in Engineering Design, Procedures, and Calculations
    1 Introduction
    2 Engineering Considerations in Experimental Investigation of CCST
    3 Experimental Techniques for the Presented Theory
    4 Determination of Extraction Constant and its Comparison with Ccst Affinity Constant Ratios
    5 Analytical methods used for the CCST verification
    6 Transferability of the Values of Affinity Constant Ratios

    9. The CCST in Solvent Extraction of Acids by Amine-Based Extractants
    1 Introduction
    2 Acid–Amine Systems in the CCST Interpretation
    3 The Systems with Active Solvent as an Additive
    4 Experimental Application of the CCST in Carboxylic Acids Extraction
    5 Summarizing Remarks

    10. Competitive Complexation/Solvation Theory in Metal Solvent Extraction
    1 Introduction
    2 CCST Basic Statements
    3 Mathematical Supplement for the CCST in Metal Extraction
    4 Experimental Verification of the CCST Approach
    5 Summarizing Remarks

    11. Final Remarks on the Competitive Complexation/Solvation Theory of Solvent Extraction and its Application

    PART III. Modern and Future Trends in Fundamentals and Applications of Solvent Extraction
    Introduction 

    12. Modern and Future Trends in Fundamentals of Solvent Extraction
    1 Introduction
    2 Novel Molecular Models Theoretical Approach
    3 Low Energy Reactions Measurement
    4 Expected Advances in Kinetics Studies
    5 Supramolecular (SUPRAS) Theoretical Approach

    13. Advances in Development of Solvents for Liquid–Liquid Extraction
    1 Introduction
    2 Organic Solvents
    3 Water as a Solvent
    4 Renewable Water-Based Solvents
    5 Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Extraction
    6 Amphiphilic Compounds (Supramolecules) as Solvents in Solvent Extraction
    7 Extraction by Microemulsion
    8 Recovery of Reagents
    9 Future Trends in the Development of New Solvents
    10 Concluding Remarks

    14. Recent Advances in Solvent Extraction Processes and Techniques
    1 Introduction
    2 Equipment Design and Scale-up Considerations
    3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction
    4 Subcritical Water Extraction
    5 Aqueous Two-Phase Systems
    6 Extraction Processes with Ionic Liquids
    7 Liquid Membrane and Nondispersive, Membrane-Based Solvent Extraction Techniques
    8 Supramolecular-Based Extraction Techniques
    9 Solid–Liquid Extraction Systems
    10 Assisted Solvent Extracion
    11 Extraction of Gas in Analytical Applications

    Appendix
    1 Fundamental Constants
    2 SI fundamental (a) and derived (b) Units used in the book
    3 Abbreviations for different Parameters, Constants, Coefficients, Commonly Used in book
    4 Abbreviations for processes and techniques, described in the book
    5 Abbreviations for Solvent extraction equipment
    6 Detection techniques in analytical chemistry, connected with solvent extraction pretreatment
    7 Abbreviations for Inorganic Compounds
    8 Abbreviations for Organic Compounds
    9 Structures of some extractants
    10 Some Examples of Metal Complexes
    11 Abbreviations for Environmental Protection Organisations and Program Mentioned in Book
    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2011
  • Published: August 31, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444537782
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444537799

About the Author

Vladimir Kislik

Affiliations and Expertise

Retired Professor in Separation Science & Technology, Casali Institute of Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

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