Solutions for Networked Databases - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121740603, 9781483217505

Solutions for Networked Databases

1st Edition

How to Move from Heterogeneous Structures to Federated Concepts

Authors: Dimitris N. Chorafas Heinrich Steinmann
eBook ISBN: 9781483217505
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th May 1993
Page Count: 350
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Description

Solutions for Networked Databases: How to Move from Heterogeneous Structures to Federated Concepts reviews developments in standards and ad hoc solutions aimed at providing cross-database connectivity for networked databases. The emphasis is on how to move from heterogeneous structures to federated concepts. The advent of the multidatabase is discussed, along with schemata, dictionaries, and protocols. Applications with federated databases are also considered.

Comprised of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to database and knowledge bank concepts; reliability and availability characteristics; and the synergy necessary to create and sustain federated databases. Centralized and distributed databases are then compared, and the different ways of managing distributed databases are outlined. Subsequent chapters focus on the importance of treating the networked database as a corporate resource; the use of schemata to solve cross-database problems; the Information Resource Dictionary System; and application programming interface and remote data access. A solution to heterogeneous distributed databases, the Data Access Integrated Services (DAIS), is described.

This monograph is written for specialists in computers and communications.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I Advent of the Multidatabase

Chapter 1 Developing a Corporate Database Concept

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Fundamental Notions for the 1990s

1.3 What Is the Sense of Database Operations?

1.4 The Concept of Corporate Databases and Knowledgebanks

1.5 Information Solutions in a Knowledge Society

1.6 The Reliability of Large Databases

1.7 Networked Databases and Reliability Measures

1.8 Fault Tolerance Means Availability

Chapter 2 Distributed Versus Centralized Database Solutions

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Increasing Complexity of Database Applications

2.3 Is Cultural Change a Prerequisite?

2.4 Distributing the Information Elements

2.5 Standards for Data Management

2.6 Adopting an Open Architecture

2.7 Open Architectures and Interface Standards

Chapter 3 Managing the Networked Database

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Need for Distributed Databases

3.3 The Growing Challenge of Long Transactions

3.4 Design Principles with Distributed Databases

3.5 A Two-Tier System: Common Denominator and Added Value

3.6 Distributed Data Management Beyond the Simple Pass-Through

3.7 What Is the Added Value of Message Passing?

Chapter 4 Treating the Networked Database as a Corporate Resource

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Optimizing Our Database Perspectives and Action Plans

4.3 Evolving Goals in a Dynamic Organization

4.4 Avoiding the Beaten Path and the Data Propagator

4.5 New or Old Database Technology?

4.6 Multidatabase Requirements with Networked Resources

4.7 Beyond the Simplest Multidatabase Links

Chapter 5 Computer Professionals and Database Challenges

5.1 Introduction

5.2 New Areas of Expertise for Database Professionals

5.3 The Sense of Object-Oriented Solutions

5.4 Toward Integrated Databases

5.5 Preparing for Database Mining

5.6 Visualization Policies with Databases

5.7 Cultural Change in Database Management

5.8 Understanding Database Contents and Requirements

Part II Schemata, Dictionaries, and Protocols

Chapter 6 Schemata, Metaphors, and Distributed Databases

6.1 Introduction

6.2 External Schema and Global Schema

6.3 Alleviating the Problems of Heterogeneity through Export Schemata

6.4 Driving for Schema Compatibility through Object Orientation

6.5 Metaphors and User Profiles

6.6 Enduser Control with External Schemata

Chapter 7 Can We Solve Cross-Database Problems through Schemata?

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Multidatabase Approaches During the Last Decade

7.3 Reflecting on the Major Classes of Cross-Database Solutions

7.4 Capitalizing on the Use of Schemata

7.5 How Far Can Message Passing Go?

7.6 Proceeding with Schema Integration

7.7 The Semantics of Schema Integration

Chapter 8 The Increasingly Sophisticated Data Dictionary

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Evolving Nature of a Data Dictionary

8.3 Looking at the Data Dictionary from a Systems Viewpoint

8.4 The Japanese Electronic Dictionary

8.5 Word and Concept Dictionaries

8.6 Placing Emphasis on Reusable Software

Chapter 9 Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS)

9.1 Introduction

9.2 A Reference Model That Might Become Repository Norm

9.3 Basic Notions about IRDS

9.4 A Four-Layered Approach to IRDS Architecture

9.5 Handling Entity Names

9.6 Customizing and Maintaining IRDS

9.7 Adding to IRDS Capabilities

Chapter 10 ANSI SQL and the SQL Access Group

10.1 Introduction

10.2 A Family of SQL Standards

10.3 Standardization Efforts with the Relational Model

10.4 The Complex Task of Database Access

10.5 Interoperability and Portability

10.6 Dynamic versus Static SQL

10.7 The Open SQL Version

Chapter 11 Application Programming Interface, Formats and Protocols, and Remote Data Access

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Gateways and Database Tools

11.3 Working toward a Standard API

11.4 Heterogeneous Database Implementation and the API Technical Specification

11.5 Formats and Protocols (FAP)

11.6 Implementing the Remote Data Access Protocol

Part III Applications with Federated Databases

Chapter 12 IBM's Distributed Relational Data Architecture (DRDA)

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The Philosophy of a Cross-Database Solution

12.3 A Predominantly Centralized Perspective?

12.4 Operating under DRDA and EDA/SQL

12.5 DRDA and the Information Warehouse

12.6 Differences between DRDA and RDA

Chapter 13 Development of the DataLens Concept and Its Productization

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Putting in Practice a Multidatabase Access Scheme

13.3 The 1-2-3 Database Engine: A Partner of DataLens

13.4 Application Programming Interface

13.5 The Layered Architecture of DataLens

13.6 Services Rendered by the DataLens Drivers

13.7 Mechanics of the Driver's Interconnection

13.8 Implementation Opportunities with DataLens Software

Chapter 14 The California Intelligent Database Assistant (CALIDA)

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Employing the Concept of the Export Schema

14.3 Targeting CALIDA-88

14.4 Query, Schema, and Language Performance

14.5 Data Level Solutions through CALIDA

14.6 Estimator and Optimizer Functions

14.7 Lessons to Be Learned from the CALIDA Experience

14.8 Using Federated Database Principles

Chapter 15 The Data Access Integrated Services (DAIS) as a Solution to Heterogeneous Distributed Databases

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Development of a DAIS Architecture

15.3 Approaches to Effective Data Sharing and Modeling

15.4 Preserving the Consistency of Networked Databases

15.5 Accessing and Using Distributed Information Elements

15.6 Mapping DAIS into the ISO/OSI Infrastructure

15.7 Data Mappers and Schema Mappers

15.8 EPRI and the Implementation of DAIS

15.9 Integrative Corporate Solutions

Chapter 16 Multivendor Integration Architecture and the Communications Environment of the 1990s

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Pillars of Multivendor Integration Architecture (MIA) by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT)

16.3 Version 1 and the Implementation Timetable

16.4 Specifications for Technical Interconnection

16.5 A New Concept in Establishing Computers and Communications Standards

16.6 Reconsidering Our Applications and Their Database Needs

Chapter 17 The Development of Software-Oriented Specifications

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Normalizing the Application Software for Portability

17.3 Upper and Lower Level Protocols

17.4 Placing Emphasis on Enduser Computing

17.5 System Software for Presentation Procedures

17.6 Support for Agile Human Interfaces

17.7 A System Design Guide

Chapter 18 Common Goals to Be Reached by MIA and the SQL Access Group

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Choosing Operating Systems and Establishing Their Interfaces

18.3 A Time for Critical Decisions

18.4 Programming Languages and Industry Practices Regarding Subsetting

18.5 Networking Computer Resources and Application Programs

18.6 A Timetable for the Implementation of Integrative Solutions

Index

Details

No. of pages:
350
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1993
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483217505

About the Author

Dimitris N. Chorafas

Dr Chorafas has served on the faculty of the Catholic University of America and as visiting professor at Washington State University, George Washington University, University of Vermont, University of Florida, and Georgia Institute of Technology. Also, the University of Alberta, Technical University of Karlsruhe, Ecole d'Etudes Industrielles de l'Université de Genève, Ecole Polytechnic Fédérale de Lausanne, Polish Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences.

More than 8,000 banking, industrial and government executives have participated in his seminars in the United States, England, Germany, Italy, other European countries, Asia and Latin America.

Financial institutions which sought his assistance include the Union Bank of Switzerland, Bank Vontobel, CEDEL, the Bank of Scotland, Credit Agricole, Österreichische Länderbank (Bank Austria), First Austrian Bank, Commerzbank, Dresdner Bank, Demir Bank, Mid-Med Bank, Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura, Istituto Bancario Italiano, Credito Commerciale and Banca Provinciale Lombarda.

Dr Chorafas is the author of 161 books, translated into several languages.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Financial Consultant and Scholar

Heinrich Steinmann