# Solid State Physics

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Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of movement of atoms, and Chapter 13 talks about the optical properties of crystals. Chapters 14 to 18 cover the other relevant areas of solid state physics, such as ferroelectricity, magnetism, surface science, and artificial structure. The book will be of great use both to novice and experienced researchers in the field of solid state physics.

## Table of Contents

1 Symmetry Operations

1-1 A Symmetry Operation

1-2 Point Symmetry Operations

1-3 The Point Groups of a Molecule

1-4 Other Symmetry Operations of Crystals

Notes

Problems

2 Symmetry Description of Crystals

2-1 Lattice

2-2 Primitive Unit Cell

2-3 The 7 Crystal Systems

2-4 The 14 Bravais Lattices

2-5 The 32 Crystallographic Point Groups

2-6 Space Groups

2-7 Definitions of Directions, Coordinates, and Planes

Appendix to Chapter 2

Notes

Problems

3 Simple Crystal Structures

3-1 Introduction

3-2 Several Cubic Symmorphic Structures

3-3 Diamond and Zinc Blende Structures

3-4 Point Group of a Space Group (S)

3-5 Examples of Defect Structures

3-6 Different Points of View of a Structure

3-7 Close Packing (and the Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure)

3-8 Volume Effects for Simple Structures

3-9 Wurtzite Structure

3-10 Site Symmetry (S)

Notes

Problems

4 X-Ray Diffraction

4-1 Electron, Neutron, and X-ray Diffraction

4-2 Bragg's Law

4-3 The Laue Formulation

4-4 Experimental X-ray Diffraction Methods (S)

Notes

Problems

5 Crystal Symmetry and Physical Properties (S)

5-1 Introduction

5-2 Neumann's Principle

5-3 Tensors

5-4 Crystal Symmetry and Physical Properties

5-5 Nonlinear Optics

Notes

Problems

6 Classification of Solids

6-1 Summary of Chapters 1-3

6-2 Introduction to Classification of Solids

6-3 Five Types of Bonds

6-4 Repulsive Potential Energy

6-5 Molecular Bond

6-6 Hydrogen Bond (S)

Notes

Problems

7 The Ionic Bond

7-1 Transfer of Electrons

7-2 Ionic Radii

7-3 Typical Structures

7-4 Cohesive Energies of Ionic Crystals

Notes

Problems

8 The Covalent Bond

8-1 Introduction

8-2 Bonding and Antibonding

8-3 The Hydrogen Molecule

8-4 Maximum Overlap

8-5 The Formation of a Crystal

8-6 "Classical" Semiconductors

8-7 Continuous Range of Bonding (S)

Appendix

Notes

Problems

9 Metals

Part A Drude's Model

9-1 Drude 's Free Electron Theory

9-2 Drude's Assumptions

9-3 DC Conductivity

9-4 Wiedemann-Franz Law

9-5 Frequency-Dependent Conductivity (S, A)

9-6 Problems of Drude 's Model

Part B Quantum Mechanics Applied

9-7 Eigenfunctions of Free Electrons in a Metal

9-8 Fermi Energy, Density of States, and Fermi Surface

9-9 Soft X-rays, Heat Capacities

9-10 Fermi-Dirac Statistics

9-11 Low Temperature Expansion Using F-D Statistics

9-12 Thermal Properties of the Electron Gas

9-13 DC Conductivity (with F-D Statistics)

9-14 Electron-Electron Collisions (S)

9-15 Hall Effect (and Other Magnetic Field Effects) (S)

9-16 Landau Levels (S, A)

Notes

Problems

10 Band Theory

Part A Qualitative Discussion

10-1 Nearly Free Electrons

10-2 Classifications of Solids

10-3 Effective Mass

Part B Wave Functions and Energy Levels

10-4 Bloch Functions

10-5 Nearly Free Electrons

10-6 Brillouin Zones

10-7 Examples of Brillouin Zones

10-8 Wigner-Seitz Approximation — The Binding Energy (S)

10-9 The Tight Binding Approximation (S)

10-10 Crystal Momentum

Part C Semiconductors, Real Bands, and Related Concepts

10-11 Holes

10-12 Band Preliminaries (A)

10-13 E(k) for a Two-Dimensional Square Lattice

10-14 Body-Centered Cubic Lattice — Sodium (S, A)

10-15 Si, Ge, GaAs, and GaP

10-16 Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equilibrium

10-17 p-n Junctions

10-18 Metal-Semiconductor Junctions

10-19 The Gunn Effect (S)

10-20 Other Topics (S)

10-21 Summary

Notes

Problems

11 Some Thermal Effects in Solids

Part A Heat Capacity

11-1 Specific Heat at Constant Volume and Pressure

11-2 Energy and Cv from Statistical Mechanics

11-3 Classical Results for Cv

11-4 Einstein's Model

11-5 Debye's Calculation of Cv

Part B Effects Associated with Disorder

11-6 Orientational Disorder in Molecular and Ionic Crystals

11-7 Polarization by Orientation (S)

11-8 Point Imperfections in Crystals

11-9 Diffusion (S)

11-10 Color Centers in Ionic Crystals (S)

11-11 Localized Vibrational Modes (S)

Notes

Problems

12 Lattice Vibrations

12-1 Introduction

12-2 Vibrations of a One-Dimensional Monatomic Chain

12-3 Vibrations of a One-Dimensional Diatomic Chain

12-4 Real Crystal Systems

12-5 Phonons(A)

12-6 Crystal Momentum (A)

12-7 Neutron Diffraction from Phonons

12-8 Thermal Conductivity (S)

Notes

Problems

13 Optical Properties of Crystals

Part A Macroscopic Theory

13-1 Dielectric Polarization

13-2 Oscillating Fields

13-3 Electromagnetic Waves in Solids

13-4 Reflectivity at an Interface

13-5 Kramers-Kronig Relations (S, A)

13-6 Damped Harmonic Oscillator

13-7 Dielectric Response of a Quantum System

Part B Lattice Vibrations

13-8 Introduction

13-9 Long Wavelength Optical Vibrations

13-10 Measurements and Results

13-11 Polaritons (S)

13-12 A Microscopic Model (S)

13-13 Clausius-Mossotti (Lorenz-Lorentz) Equations

Part C Free Carrier Absorption

13-14 Introduction

13-15 Oscillator Model

13-16 Experimental Results

13-17 Transverse and Longitudinal Free Electron Modes (S)

Part D Interband Transitions

13-18 Introduction

13-19 Fundamental Absorption Near Eg

13-20 Excitons (Mostly Weakly Bound Excitons)

13-21 Fundamental Absorption Above Eg

13-22 Urbach Edge (S)

Notes

Problems

14 Ferroelectricity and Structural Phase Transitions

14-1 Introduction

14-2 The Free Energy

14-3 Soft Modes

14-4 Microscopic Model of Soft Modes

14-5 Renormalization Group

14-6 Optical Properties of Ferroelectrics (S)

14-7 Other Related Properties

Notes

Problems

15 Magnetism

Part A Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism

15-1 Introduction

15-2 Diamagnetism

15-3 Paramagnetism

Part B Ferromagnetism, Antiferromagnetism, and Related Topics

15-4 Introduction

15-5 Molecular Field Theory

15-6 The Heisenberg Exchange Interaction

15-7 Magnetic Structures

15-8 Special Techniques Used to Study Magnetic Structures

Part C Other Topics

15-9 Spin Waves (S, A)

15-10 Anisotropy, Hysteresis, Domains, and Bloch Walls

15-11 Metals and Magnetism (S, A)

15-12 Spin Glasses (S)

Notes

Problems

16 Superconductivity

16-1 Introduction (dc Conductivity)

16-2 The Occurrence of Superconductivity

16-3 Effects that Destroy Superconductivity

16-4 Magnetic Properties

16-5 The BCS Theory

16-6 BCS Predictions

16-7 BCS Related Measurements

16-8 The Josephson Effect

Notes

Problems

17 Surface Science

17-1 Introduction — The Need for UHV

17-2 Crystal Shape

17-3 Preparation of Clean Surfaces and LEED

17-4 The Structure of Surfaces

17-5 Interaction of Gases with Surfaces

17-6 Surface Related Techniques

17-7 Electronic Surface Structure

Notes

Problems

Appendix to Chapter 17

18 Artificial Structures

Part A Semiconductors

18-1 Introduction

18-2 A Particle in a 1-D Rectangular Well

18-3 3-D Motion with a 1-D Rectangular Well

18-4 Experimental Aspects

18-5 Semiconductor Superlattices

18-6 Inversion Layers

Part B Metals

18-7 Introduction

18-8 Sample Preparation

18-9 Properties of Layered Metal Structures

18-10 Other Artificial Structures (S)

Notes

Problems

Appendix

Appendix — Units

Bibliography

Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 826
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
- Published: August 12, 1986
- Imprint: Academic Press
- eBook ISBN: 9781483106199

## About the Author

### Gerald Burns

#### Affiliations and Expertise

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York