Solid State Physics for Metallurgists

Solid State Physics for Metallurgists

International Series of Monographs on Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy

1st Edition - January 1, 1963

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  • Author: Richard J. Weiss
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483139104

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Description

Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics. Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in the solid whereby the bonding electrons between atoms act as nearly harmonic oscillator spring being somewhat stiffer in compression than expansion. This book discusses as well the various properties of the nucleus. The final chapter deals with the different experimental measurements on copper and iron. This book is a valuable resource for metallurgists, experimentalists, and solid state physicists.

Table of Contents


  • List of Tables

    Foreword

    Theory

    Chapter I. The Atom

    Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

    The Schrödinger Equation

    The Hydrogen Atom

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle

    Problems

    The Helium Atom

    Hartree Self-Consistent Field

    Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Building Up the Periodic Table

    The Properties of the Elements in the Periodic Table

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter II. The Molecule and the Solid

    The Hydrogen Molecule

    Other Molecules

    Theoretical Approach to More Complicated Molecules

    Summary

    Problems

    Electron Theory of Solids, Lithium Metal

    Various Methods for Solving the Schrödinger Equation for Crystals

    Free Electron Theory

    The Bonding Electrons in the Periodic Table

    Crystal Field Theory; Liquids

    The Bonding Electrons in Transition Metals and Rare Earth Metals

    Electronic Origin of Magnetism

    Problems

    Chapter III. Temperature and Pressure

    The Meaning of Temperature

    The Harmonic Oscillator

    The Anharmonic Oscillator

    Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

    How to Determine the Eigenvalues of a Crystal

    One Dimensional Chain of Atoms

    Normal Modes in Three Dimensions

    Thermodynamics

    Debye Theory

    Frequency Spectrum for Vanadium

    Phonons

    Elastic Constants

    Electronic Specific Heat

    Fermi-Dirac Function

    Magnetic Specific Heat, Spin Waves

    Thermodynamics of Phase Changes

    Effects of Pressure

    Liquids

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter IV. The Nucleus

    Static Properties of the Nucleus

    Dynamical Properties of the Nucleus

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Experiment

    Chapter V. Experimental Techniques

    Introduction

    Sample Preparation

    Analysis of Pure Metals

    Analysis of Alloys

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter VI. Diffraction

    What can be Learned from Diffraction

    X-RAYS—X-ray Diffraction Equipment

    Crystal Structure Determinations

    Atomic Sizes in Alloys

    Short Range Order

    Long Range Order

    Theory of Ordering

    How to Determine the Electron Probability Distribution

    Experimental Difficulties, in Determining Electron Probability Distributions

    Converting the Structure Factor into an Electron Probability Distribution

    Determination of Electron Probability Distributions from Compton Scattering

    Thermal Scattering of X-rays

    NEUTRONS—Introduction to Neutron Diffraction

    Experimental Details

    Determining the Arrangement of Magnetic Moments in a Crystal

    The Magnetic Structure of the Transition Metals

    The Magnetic Structure of the Rare Earth Metals

    Ordered Alloys

    Size Effects

    Extinction Effects

    Diffuse Scattering

    Summary

    Determination of the Unpaired Electron Probability Distribution

    Neutron Diffraction of Nickel

    Neutron Magnetic Scattering of Iron

    Thermal Scattering of Neutrons

    Experimental Techniques

    Thermal Scattering from Silicon and Aluminum

    ELECTRONS—Introduction

    Electron Probability Distribution in Argon Gas

    Electron Diffraction of Molecules, Surfaces, etc.

    Problems

    Chapter summary

    Chapter VII. Spectroscopy of the Solid

    Introduction

    How Photons Interact with Solids

    Absorption of X-rays in Argon

    Emission of X-rays from Argon

    X-ray Emission from Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge

    Determination of the Density of States in Beryllium

    Fluorescent Yield

    Structure of X-ray Absorption Edge

    Satellites

    Experimental Techniques in X-ray Emission

    Optical Absorption in Diamond

    The Color and Band Structure of Copper and Silver

    Experimental Techniques in the Optical Region

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter VIII. Transport Properties

    Introduction

    Types of Measurements

    Resistivity

    Magnetoresistance

    De Haas Van Alphen Effect

    Cyclotron Resonance

    Anomalous Skin Effect

    Hall Effect

    Thermoelectric Power

    Superconductivity

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter IX. Thermodynamics and Cohesion

    Introduction

    Experimental Details of Specific Heat and Heat Content Measurements

    Analysis of the Specific Heat of Iron

    Low Temperature Specific Heat of Cobalt

    Nuclear Quadrupole Contribution to the Specific Heat

    Information Gained from Specific Heat Measurements

    Experimental Measurement of Thermal Conductivity

    Thermal Conductivity of Copper and Nickel

    Thermal Conductivity at Low Temperature

    Ultrasonic Experimental Technique

    Ultrasonic Attenuation in a Magnetic Field

    Thermodynamics and Cohesion of Alloys

    Hume-Rothery Rules

    Thermodynamics of Copper-Gold and Platinum-Gold Alloys

    Experimental Techniques

    Platinum-Gold

    Copper-Gold

    Pressure Measurements

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter X. Magnetization

    Introduction

    Experimental Techniques

    Results of Measurements

    Orbital Diamagnetism

    Ferromagnetic Metals

    Antiferromagnetic Metals

    Paramagnetism

    Pauli Paramagnetism

    Orbital Diamagnetism

    Exchange Polarization of Electrons in Metallic Bands

    Van Vleck Paramagnetism

    Ferromagnetic Resonance

    Antiferromagnetic Resonance

    Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Metal and Rare Earth Atoms

    Paramagnetic Resonance of Electrons at Fermi Level

    Einstein de Haas Effect

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter XI. Nuclear Measurements

    Introduction

    Theoretical Background for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)

    How the Measurements are Made

    The Knight Shift in Lithium, Sodium and Beryllium

    The Knight Shift in Silver-Cadmium Alloys

    The Ferromagnetic Shift in Iron

    Pure Quadrupole Resonance in Gallium

    Pressure and Temperature Dependence of Knight Shift

    Intensity of Cold Worked Copper

    Intensity of the Resonance in Dilute Copper Alloys

    The Second Moment

    Anisotropic Knight Shift in Tin, Thallium, Cadium and Mercury

    Exchange Broadening in Silver

    Nuclear Resonance in Manganese

    Line Shape in Cold Worked Copper

    Diffusion in Sodium

    Theory of Diffusion

    Relaxation Times in Aluminum and Copper

    Overhauser Effect

    Theory of the Mössbauer Effect

    Mössbauer Effect in Iron

    Diffusion Studies with Radioactive Tracers

    Autoradiography

    Radiation Damage in Copper

    Elemental Analysis by Activation

    Radioactivity and its Health Hazard

    Van de Graaff Accelerators

    Positron Annihilation in Solids

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Chapter XII. Jig-Saw Puzzle; Problem in Synthesis

    Introduction

    Electronic Structure of Copper and Iron

    Solutions of the Schrödinger Equation for an Imperfect Crystal

    Problems

    Chapter Summary

    Appendix I. Thermodynamics Tables

    Debye Entropy

    Debye Energy

    Debye Specific Heat

    Appendix II. Nuclear Tables

    Nuclear Magnetic Moments, Nuclear Quadrupole Moments, Nuclear Spins

    Absorption Cross Sections, Coherent Scattering Cross Sections, Total Scattering Cross Sections for Thermal Neutrons

    Appendix III.

    Suggested References

    Constants and Conversion Factors

    General References

    List of Symbols According to Chapters

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 424
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1963
  • Published: January 1, 1963
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483139104

About the Author

Richard J. Weiss

About the Editor

G. V. Raynor

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