Solid State Nuclear Track Detection - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080206059, 9781483147512

Solid State Nuclear Track Detection

1st Edition

Principles, Methods and Applications

Authors: S. A. Durrani R. K. Bull
Editors: D. ter Haar
eBook ISBN: 9781483147512
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1987
Page Count: 318
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Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detection instrumentation. The book also covers fission track dating, and the application of track detectors and its future direction. The selection is recommended for newcomers to the field of solid state nuclear track detection and its research, those who wish to acquire a basic knowledge of the techniques of the discipline, and those who wish to gain a general view of the present status of the subject.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Nuclear Track Detectors

1.1 Cloud, Bubble and Spark Chambers

(a) The Cloud Chamber

(b) The Bubble Chamber

(c) The Spark Chamber

1.2 Nuclear Emulsions

1.3 Silver Halide Crystals

1.4 Etchable Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs)

2 Interactions of Charged Particles with Matter

2.1 Nuclear Collision Losses

2.2 Electronic Energy Losses

2.3 Direct Production of Atomic Displacements

2.4 Secondary Electrons

2.5 Range-Energy Relations

3 The Nature of Charged-Particle Tracks and Some Possible Track Formation Mechanisms in Insulating Solids

3.1 Radiation Damage in Solids

(a) The Seitz Model

(b) The Varley Model

(c) The Pooley Mechanism

3.2 Track-Storing Materials

3.3 Track-forming Particles: Criteria for Track Formation

(a) Total Rate of Energy Loss, dE/dx

(b) Primary Ionization, J

(c) Restricted Energy Loss (REL)

(d) Secondary-Electron Energy Loss

(e) Radius-Restricted Energy Loss (RREL)

(f) Lineal Event-Density (LED)

3.4 Experimental Studies on the Size and Structure of Latent-Damage Trails

3.4.1 Electron Microscopy

3.4.2 Low-Angle X-Ray Scattering

3.4.3 Thermal Annealing of Tracks

3.4.4 The Radial Extent of the Etchable Damage

3.4.5 Other Experimental Evidence for Track Structure

3.5 Critical Appraisal of Track Formation Models

3.5.1 The Thermal-Spike Model

3.5.2 The Ion-Explosion Spike Model

4 Track Etching: Methodology and Geometry

4.1 Track Etching Recipes

4.2 Track Etching Geometry

4.2.1 Constant Track Etching Velocity VT

4.2.2 Determination of Track Parameters R and VT

4.2.3 Etching Efficiencies: Internal and External Track sources

4.2.4 Track Etching Geometry with Varying VT

4.2.5 Track Etching Geometry in Anisotropic Solids

4.3 Some Special Techniques for Track Parameter Measurements

4.4 Environmental Effects on Track Etching

5 Thermal Fading of Latent Damage Trails

5.1 The Nature of the Annealing Process

5.2 The Effects of Pre-annealing on the Etched Tracks

5.3 Typical Annealing Temperatures for Fission Tracks in Various Materials

5.4 Closing Temperatures

5.5 Annealing Correction Methods

5.6 Track Seasoning

6. The Use of Dielectric Track Recorders in Particle Identification

6.1 Calibration

6.1.1 The L-R plot

6.2 Charge Assignment

6.3 Low-Energy Particles

6.4 Charge and Mass Resolution

6.5 Some Applications of Particle Identification Techniques

6.5.1 Cosmic Ray Physics

6.5.2 Nuclear Physics

6.6 The Ancient Cosmic Rays

7. Radiation Dosimetry and SSNTD Instrumentation

7.1 Neutron Dosimetry

7.1.1 Thermal Neutrons

7.1.2 Fast and Intermediate-Energy Neutrons

7.2 Alpha Particle Dosimetry and Radon Measurements

7.3 Charged Particles other than Alphas

7.3.1 Dosimetry of High-LET Radiations in Space

7.3.2 Microdosimetry of Negative-Pion Beams

7.4 SSNTD Instrumentation: Automatic Evaluation and Methods of Track Image Enhancement

7.4.1 The Spark Counter

7.4.2 Other Electrical-Breakdown Devices

7.4.3 Scintillator-Filled Etch Pit Counting

7.4.4 Electrochemical Etching (ECE)

7.4.5 Automatic and Semi-Automatic Image-Analysis Systems

7.4.6 Other Methods of Measurement

8 Fission Track Dating

8.1 Radioactive Dating

8.2 The Fission Track Age Equation

8.3 Practical Steps in Obtaining a Fission Track Age

8.3.1 The Population Method

8.3.2 The External-Detector Method

8.4 The Interpretation of Fission Track Ages

8.5 Neutron Dosimetry, Fission Decay Constant of 238U, and Age Standards

8.5.1 Neutron Fluence Measurements

8.5.2 The Fission Decay Constant

8.5.3 Age Standards

8.6 Annealing Corrections

8.6.1 The Track Size Correction Method

8.6.2 The Plateau Correction Method

8.7 Fission Track Dating of Lunar Samples and Meteorites

8.7.1 Heavy Cosmic-Ray Primaries

8.7.2 Cosmic-Ray-Induced Fission

8.7.3 Spallation Recoil Tracks

8.8 244Pu Fission Tracks in Very Ancient Samples

8.8.1 244Pu Fission Track Age Equation

8.8.2 The "Contact" Track Density Method

8.9 Fission Track Dating in Archeology

8.10 Errors in Fission Track Dating

9 Further Applications of Track Detectors and Some Directions for the Future

9.1 Applications to Nuclear Physics

9.1.1 Fission Phenomena and Related Studies

9.1.2 Other Nuclear Reactions

9.2 Elemental Distributions and Biological Applications

9.2.1 Elemental Mapping

9.2.2 Biological Applications

9.3 Extraterrestrial Samples

9.3.1 Lunar Sample Studies

9.3.2 Meteorites

9.4 Track Detectors in Teaching

9.5 Future Developments in Etched Track Techniques and Their Applications

9.6 Epilogue

Appendix 1. A Program to Calculate the Range and Energy-Loss Rate of Charged Particles in Stopping Media

Subject Index

Titles in the Series


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1987
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

S. A. Durrani

R. K. Bull

About the Editor

D. ter Haar

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