Solid–Liquid Separation

Solid–Liquid Separation

Chemical Engineering Series

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editor: Ladislav Svarovsky
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483162850

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Solid–Liquid Separation compiles a compact and coherent structure of contributions regarding solid-liquid separation. This book comprises chapters on basic fundamentals, principles and equipment, as well as on various important aspects of solid-liquid separation such as filter aids, washing, and flocculation. Other topics include characterization of particles suspended in liquids; efficiency of separation of particles from fluids; separation by centrifugal sedimentation; pressure filtration; cake dewatering; and selection of solid-liquid separation equipment. This publication is useful to chemical engineers and process engineers, particularly those in plant operation, plant design or equipment testing and commissioning. This selection can also be used as a textbook for teaching in undergraduate, postgraduate, and post-experience courses.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction to Solid-Liquid Separation

    1.1. Solid-Liquid Separation Processes

    2. Characterization of Particles Suspended in Liquids

    2.1. Introduction, the Reasons for Particle Characterization

    2.2. Definitions of Particle Size

    2.3. Types of Particle Size Distribution

    2.4. Measures of Central Tendency

    2.5. Presentation of Data

    2.6. Sampling

    2.7. Laboratory Measurement of Particle Size

    2.8. On-Line Measurement Techniques


    3. Efficiency of Separation of Particles from Fluids

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Basic Definitions and Mass Balance Equations

    3.3. Basic Relationships Between ET, G(X) and the Particle Size Distributions of the Products

    3.4. Modifications of Efficiency Definitions for Applications with an Appreciable Underflow-to-Throughput Ratio

    Appendix 3.1. Errors in the Measurement of the Total Efficiency

    Appendix 3.2. Errors in the Measurement of the Grade Efficiency


    4. Coagulation and Flocculation

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. The Colloidal Model

    4.3. Electrokinetic Phenomena and the Zeta Potential

    4.4 Practical Applications of the Zeta Potential

    4.5 Flocculation by Polyelectrolytes

    4.6. Other Considerations


    5. Gravity Thickening


    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. The Sedimentation Concept

    5.3. Factors Affecting Sedimentation

    5.4. Thickeners as Unit Processes

    Appendix 5.1


    6. Hydrocyclones

    6.1. Introduction and Description

    6.2. Liquid Flow Patterns

    6.3. Motion of Suspended Particles

    6.4. Prediction of Hydrocyclone Efficiency

    6.5. Pressure Drop

    6.6. Design Variables Affecting Performance

    6.7. Design of a Hydrocyclone Installation

    6.8. Multiple Hydrocyclone Arrangements Available

    6.9. Applications of Hydrocyclones

    Appendix 6.1


    7. Separation by Centrifugal Sedimentation

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Theoretical Performance Predictions

    7.3. Equipment

    7.4. Factors Affecting the Choice of Centrifugal Equipment


    8. Screening

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Screen Design

    8.3. Screen Function

    8.4. Screen Types

    8.5. Screen Deck Materials

    8.6 Screen Efficiency

    Appendix 8.1. Dewatering Screen Applications

    Appendix 8.2. Proof of Rectangular-Hole-Screen Efficiency Formula


    9. Filtration Fundamentals

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Flow Rate-Pressure Drop Relations

    9.3. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Incompressible Cakes

    9.4. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Compressible Cakes

    9.5. Relationship between Specific Cake Resistance, Porosity and Specific Surface

    9.6. Cake Moisture Correction—Mass Balance


    10. Filter Aids

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Commercially Available Filter Aid Powders

    10.3. Applications of Filter Aids

    11. Deep Bed Filtration

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Theory

    11.3. Problems of Design and Operation

    11.4. Future Developments


    12. Pressure Filtration

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Pressure Filters

    12.3. Optimum Cycle Times


    13. Vacuum Filtration


    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Vacuum Filtration Equipment

    13.3. Research into Filter Performance

    Appendix 13.1


    14. Centrifugal Filtration

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Flow through the Cake of a Filter Centrifuge

    14.3. The Filtration Period in a Centrifugal Field

    14.4. Measurement of the Intrinsic Permeability of a Filter Cake in a Centrifugal Field

    14.5. Bypass Filtration Processes in Centrifugal Fields

    14.6. Design and Operating Characteristics of Filter Centrifuges

    14.7. Peculiarities of Pusher Centrifuges

    Appendix 14.1. Compilation of Important Definitions


    15. Cake Washing


    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. Washing by Displacement

    15.3. Reslurry Washing


    16. Cake Dewatering


    16.1. Introduction

    16.2. Definitions

    16.3. Two-Phase Flow in Filter Cakes

    16.4. Residual Saturation

    16.5. Kinetics of Dewatering

    16.6. Compression Dewatering

    16.7. Cake Cracking


    17. Filter Media

    17.1. Introduction

    17.2. Criteria for Filter Media for Specific Groups of Filters

    17.3. Filter Media Materials

    17.4. Stability and Strength of Filter Media

    18. The Selection of Solid-Liquid Separation Equipment

    18.1. Introduction

    18.2. Sedimentation or Filtration?

    18.3. Sedimentation Equipment

    18.4. Filtration Equipment


Product details

  • No. of pages: 345
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483162850

About the Editor

Ladislav Svarovsky

Consultant and Head of Fine Particle Software Institute. Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Pardubice, Czech Republic. Fellow of Institution of Chemical Engineers. Member of the Sub-Committee ISM/65/2 of British Standards Institution (until 1997)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

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