Solid–Liquid Separation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408707954, 9781483162850

Solid–Liquid Separation

1st Edition

Chemical Engineering Series

Editors: Ladislav Svarovsky
eBook ISBN: 9781483162850
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 345
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Solid–Liquid Separation compiles a compact and coherent structure of contributions regarding solid-liquid separation. This book comprises chapters on basic fundamentals, principles and equipment, as well as on various important aspects of solid-liquid separation such as filter aids, washing, and flocculation. Other topics include characterization of particles suspended in liquids; efficiency of separation of particles from fluids; separation by centrifugal sedimentation; pressure filtration; cake dewatering; and selection of solid-liquid separation equipment. This publication is useful to chemical engineers and process engineers, particularly those in plant operation, plant design or equipment testing and commissioning. This selection can also be used as a textbook for teaching in undergraduate, postgraduate, and post-experience courses.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Solid-Liquid Separation

1.1. Solid-Liquid Separation Processes

2. Characterization of Particles Suspended in Liquids

2.1. Introduction, the Reasons for Particle Characterization

2.2. Definitions of Particle Size

2.3. Types of Particle Size Distribution

2.4. Measures of Central Tendency

2.5. Presentation of Data

2.6. Sampling

2.7. Laboratory Measurement of Particle Size

2.8. On-Line Measurement Techniques


3. Efficiency of Separation of Particles from Fluids

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Basic Definitions and Mass Balance Equations

3.3. Basic Relationships Between ET, G(X) and the Particle Size Distributions of the Products

3.4. Modifications of Efficiency Definitions for Applications with an Appreciable Underflow-to-Throughput Ratio

Appendix 3.1. Errors in the Measurement of the Total Efficiency

Appendix 3.2. Errors in the Measurement of the Grade Efficiency


4. Coagulation and Flocculation

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Colloidal Model

4.3. Electrokinetic Phenomena and the Zeta Potential

4.4 Practical Applications of the Zeta Potential

4.5 Flocculation by Polyelectrolytes

4.6. Other Considerations


5. Gravity Thickening


5.1. Introduction

5.2. The Sedimentation Concept

5.3. Factors Affecting Sedimentation

5.4. Thickeners as Unit Processes

Appendix 5.1


6. Hydrocyclones

6.1. Introduction and Description

6.2. Liquid Flow Patterns

6.3. Motion of Suspended Particles

6.4. Prediction of Hydrocyclone Efficiency

6.5. Pressure Drop

6.6. Design Variables Affecting Performance

6.7. Design of a Hydrocyclone Installation

6.8. Multiple Hydrocyclone Arrangements Available

6.9. Applications of Hydrocyclones

Appendix 6.1


7. Separation by Centrifugal Sedimentation

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Theoretical Performance Predictions

7.3. Equipment

7.4. Factors Affecting the Choice of Centrifugal Equipment


8. Screening

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Screen Design

8.3. Screen Function

8.4. Screen Types

8.5. Screen Deck Materials

8.6 Screen Efficiency

Appendix 8.1. Dewatering Screen Applications

Appendix 8.2. Proof of Rectangular-Hole-Screen Efficiency Formula


9. Filtration Fundamentals

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Flow Rate-Pressure Drop Relations

9.3. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Incompressible Cakes

9.4. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Compressible Cakes

9.5. Relationship between Specific Cake Resistance, Porosity and Specific Surface

9.6. Cake Moisture Correction—Mass Balance


10. Filter Aids

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Commercially Available Filter Aid Powders

10.3. Applications of Filter Aids

11. Deep Bed Filtration

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Theory

11.3. Problems of Design and Operation

11.4. Future Developments


12. Pressure Filtration

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Pressure Filters

12.3. Optimum Cycle Times


13. Vacuum Filtration


13.1. Introduction

13.2. Vacuum Filtration Equipment

13.3. Research into Filter Performance

Appendix 13.1


14. Centrifugal Filtration

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Flow through the Cake of a Filter Centrifuge

14.3. The Filtration Period in a Centrifugal Field

14.4. Measurement of the Intrinsic Permeability of a Filter Cake in a Centrifugal Field

14.5. Bypass Filtration Processes in Centrifugal Fields

14.6. Design and Operating Characteristics of Filter Centrifuges

14.7. Peculiarities of Pusher Centrifuges

Appendix 14.1. Compilation of Important Definitions


15. Cake Washing


15.1. Introduction

15.2. Washing by Displacement

15.3. Reslurry Washing


16. Cake Dewatering


16.1. Introduction

16.2. Definitions

16.3. Two-Phase Flow in Filter Cakes

16.4. Residual Saturation

16.5. Kinetics of Dewatering

16.6. Compression Dewatering

16.7. Cake Cracking


17. Filter Media

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Criteria for Filter Media for Specific Groups of Filters

17.3. Filter Media Materials

17.4. Stability and Strength of Filter Media

18. The Selection of Solid-Liquid Separation Equipment

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Sedimentation or Filtration?

18.3. Sedimentation Equipment

18.4. Filtration Equipment



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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1977
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Ladislav Svarovsky

Consultant and Head of Fine Particle Software Institute. Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Pardubice, Czech Republic. Fellow of Institution of Chemical Engineers. Member of the Sub-Committee ISM/65/2 of British Standards Institution (until 1997)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

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