Solid-Liquid Separation

Solid-Liquid Separation

3rd Edition - February 1, 1990

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  • Editor: Ladislav Svarovsky
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483162805

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Solid-Liquid Separation, Third Edition reviews the equipment and principles involved in the separation of solids and liquids from a suspension. Some important aspects of solid-liquid separation such as washing, flotation, membrane separation, and magnetic separation are discussed. This book is comprised of 23 chapters and begins with an overview of solid-liquid separation processes and the principles involved, including flotation, gravity sedimentation, cake filtration, and deep bed filtration. The following chapters focus on the characterization of particles suspended in liquids; the efficiency of separation of particles from fluids; coagulation and flocculation; gravity thickening; and the operating characteristics, optimum design criteria, and applications of hydrocyclones. The reader is also introduced to various solid-liquid separation processes such as centrifugal sedimentation, screening, and filtration, along with the use of filter aids. Countercurrent washing of solids and problems associated with fine particle recycling are also considered. The final chapter is devoted to the thermodynamics of particle-fluid interaction. This monograph will be useful to chemical engineers and process engineers, particularly those in plant operation, plant design, or equipment testing and commissioning. It can also be used as a textbook for both undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction to Solid-Liquid Separation

    1.1. Solid-liquid Separation Processes

    1.2. The Spectrum of Particle Size

    2. Characterization of Particles Suspended in Liquids

    2.1. Introduction, the Reasons for Particle Characterization

    2.2. Definitions of Particle Size

    2.3. Types of Particle Size Distribution

    2.4. Measures of Central Tendency

    2.5. Presentation of Data

    2.6. Sampling

    2.7. Laboratory Measurement of Particle Size

    2.8. On-line Measurement Techniques

    2.9. Statistical Measurement Control

    Appendix 2.1

    Appendix 2.2


    3. Efficiency of Separation of Particles from Fluids

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Basic Definitions and Mass Balance Equations

    3.3. Basic Relationships between ET, G(x) and the Particle Size Distributions of the Products

    3.4. Modifications of Efficiency Definitions for Applications with an Appreciable Underflow-to-throughput Ratio

    3.5. The Use of Separators in Series and in Multiple Pass Systems


    4. Coagulation and Flocculation Part I

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. The Colloidal Model

    4.3. Electro-kinetic Phenomena and the Zeta Potential

    4.4. Practical Applications of the Zeta Potential

    4.5. Flocculation by Polyelectrolytes

    4.6. Other Considerations



    Orthokinetic Flocculation Part II


    4.7. Introduction

    4.8. Theory

    4.9. Laboratory Testing

    4.10. Practical Flocculators

    4.11. Current Developments


    5. Gravity Thickening


    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. The Sedimentation Concept

    5.3. Factors Affecting Sedimentation

    5.4. Thickener Design

    5.5. Thickener Types

    5.6. High Capacity Thickening Systems

    5.7. Clarifier Types

    5.8. Flocculation Feed Systems for Thickeners and Cones

    5.9. Control Systems

    5.10. Process Modeling


    6. Hydrocyclones


    6.1. Introduction and Description

    6.2. Liquid Flow Patterns

    6.3. Motion of Suspended Particles

    6.4. Pressure Distribution within the Flow, Static Pressure Drop

    6.5. Hydrocyclone Function, Design and Merits

    6.6. Theories of Separation

    6.7. Hydrocyclone Selection and Scale-up

    6.8. Design Variations, other Design Features

    6.9. Applications

    6.10. Conclusions


    7. Separation by Centrifugal Sedimentation


    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Theoretical Performance Predictions

    7.3. Equipment

    7.4. Factors Affecting the Choice of Centrifugal Equipment

    7.5. Recent Developments


    8. Screening


    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Screen Design Considerations

    8.3. Screen Types

    8.4. Screen Deck Materials

    8.5. Screen Performance

    8.6. Cost of Screening Equipment


    9. Filtration Fundamentals


    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Flow Rate-Pressure Drop Relationships

    9.3. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Incompressible Cakes

    9.4. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Compressible Cakes

    9.5. Relationship between Specific Cake Resistance, Porosity and Specific Surface

    9.6. Cake Moisture Correction—Mass Balance

    9.7. Further Development of Filtration Theory

    9.8. The Benefits of Pre-thickening


    10. Filter Aids

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Areas of Use

    10.3. Filter Aid Characteristics

    10.4. Types of Filter Aid

    10.5. Filter Aid Filtration

    10.6. The Pre-coat Body-Feed (Pressure) Filtration System

    10.7. Rotary Drum Pre-coat Filter



    11. Deep Bed Filtration

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Theory

    11.3. Problems of Design and Operation

    11.4. Current Developments


    12. Pressure Filtration

    Part I-Batch Pressure Filtration

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Batch Pressure Filtration

    Part II-Continuous Pressure Filtration

    12.3. Continuous Pressure Filtration


    13. Vacuum Filtration

    Part I


    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Vacuum Filtration Equipment

    13.3. Filter Selection

    13.4. Filtration Theory for Continuous Filters

    13.5. Vacuum Filter Performance and Prediction


    Part II-Horizontal Vacuum Belt Filters

    13.6. Introduction

    13.7. Cake Forming

    13.8. Advantages of Belt Filter over Rotary Drum Filter

    13.9. Is the Belt Filter Universal

    13.10. Floor Areas

    14. Centrifugal Filtration

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2. Flow through the Cake of a Filter Centrifuge

    14.3. The Filtration Period in a Centrifugal Field

    14.4. Measurement of the Intrinsic Permeability of a Filter Cake in a Centrifugal Field

    14.5. Centrifugal Drainage

    14.6. Filter Centrifuges

    14.7. Practical Aspects of Centrifugal Filtration


    15. Counter-Current Washing of Solids

    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. Mass Balance Calculations

    15.3. Washing Train Design Recommendations

    15.4. Applications

    15.5. Conclusions


    16. Problems with Fine Particle Recycling


    16.1. Introduction

    16.2. The Separation Characteristics of Sedimentation Processes

    16.3. Unlimited Fines Build-up due to Overflow Recycling

    16.4. Measures against Fines Build-up


    17. Filter Media, Filter Rating

    17.1. Introduction

    17.2. Filter Media—General

    17.3. Cartridge Filters

    17.4. Rigid Porous Media

    17.5. Non-woven Media

    17.6. Woven Wire

    17.7. Woven Fabrics

    17.8. Material Selection

    17.9. Filter Rating

    17.10. Summary


    18. Methods for Limiting Cake Growth

    18.1. Introduction

    18.2. Removal of Cake by Mass Forces

    18.3. Mechanical Cake Removal

    18.4. Dislodging of Cake by Reverse Flow

    18.5. Prevention of Cake Deposition by Vibration

    18.6. Cross-flow Filtration


    19. Flotation


    19.1. Introduction

    19.2. Hydrophobicity and Flotation

    19.3. Bubble Generation in Flotation Systems

    19.4. Particle Size and Floatability

    19.5. Bubble-Particle Aggregation

    19.6. Macro-Kinetic Model of Flotation

    19.7. Factors in Plant Design

    19.8. Recent Developments


    20. The Selection of Solid-Liquid Separation Equipment

    20.1. Introduction

    20.2. Sedimentation or Filtration

    20.3. Sedimentation Equipment

    20.4. Filtration Equipment

    21. Membrane Separation


    21.1. Membrane Separation Processes

    21.2. Pressure-Driven Membrane Separations

    21.3. Reverse Osmosis

    21.4. Fluid Management

    21.5. Membrane Morphology and Production

    21.6. Equipment

    21.7. Ultra-filtration

    21.8. Cross-flow Micro-filtration

    21.9. Flux Stability and Decay

    21.10. Conclusions


    22. High Gradient Magnetic Separation

    22.1. Introduction

    22.2. Theory of High Gradient Magnetic Separation

    22.3. The Magnetic Processing of a Typical Ceramic Clay

    22.4. Bio-magnetic Separation Processes for Heavy Metal Ions from Solution

    22.5. Superconducting Magnetic Separators


    23. Particle-fluid Interaction, Thermodynamics of Solid-Liquid Separation

    Part I-Particle-fluid Interaction


    23.1. Introduction

    23.2. Motion of Particles in Fluids

    23.3. Flow Through Packed Beds


    Part II-Thermodynamics of Solid-Liquid Separation


    23.4. Introduction

    23.5. Some Notes on Entropy

    23.6. Entropy Index

    23.7. Criterion of Separation

    23.8. Estimates of Sediment Porosity

    23.9. Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 730
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
  • Published: February 1, 1990
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483162805

About the Editor

Ladislav Svarovsky

Consultant and Head of Fine Particle Software Institute. Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Pardubice, Czech Republic. Fellow of Institution of Chemical Engineers. Member of the Sub-Committee ISM/65/2 of British Standards Institution (until 1997)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

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