Solid-Liquid Separation - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780408037655, 9781483162805

Solid-Liquid Separation

3rd Edition

Editors: Ladislav Svarovsky
eBook ISBN: 9781483162805
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st February 1990
Page Count: 730
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Solid-Liquid Separation, Third Edition reviews the equipment and principles involved in the separation of solids and liquids from a suspension. Some important aspects of solid-liquid separation such as washing, flotation, membrane separation, and magnetic separation are discussed. This book is comprised of 23 chapters and begins with an overview of solid-liquid separation processes and the principles involved, including flotation, gravity sedimentation, cake filtration, and deep bed filtration. The following chapters focus on the characterization of particles suspended in liquids; the efficiency of separation of particles from fluids; coagulation and flocculation; gravity thickening; and the operating characteristics, optimum design criteria, and applications of hydrocyclones. The reader is also introduced to various solid-liquid separation processes such as centrifugal sedimentation, screening, and filtration, along with the use of filter aids. Countercurrent washing of solids and problems associated with fine particle recycling are also considered. The final chapter is devoted to the thermodynamics of particle-fluid interaction. This monograph will be useful to chemical engineers and process engineers, particularly those in plant operation, plant design, or equipment testing and commissioning. It can also be used as a textbook for both undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Solid-Liquid Separation

1.1. Solid-liquid Separation Processes

1.2. The Spectrum of Particle Size

2. Characterization of Particles Suspended in Liquids

2.1. Introduction, the Reasons for Particle Characterization

2.2. Definitions of Particle Size

2.3. Types of Particle Size Distribution

2.4. Measures of Central Tendency

2.5. Presentation of Data

2.6. Sampling

2.7. Laboratory Measurement of Particle Size

2.8. On-line Measurement Techniques

2.9. Statistical Measurement Control

Appendix 2.1

Appendix 2.2


3. Efficiency of Separation of Particles from Fluids

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Basic Definitions and Mass Balance Equations

3.3. Basic Relationships between ET, G(x) and the Particle Size Distributions of the Products

3.4. Modifications of Efficiency Definitions for Applications with an Appreciable Underflow-to-throughput Ratio

3.5. The Use of Separators in Series and in Multiple Pass Systems


4. Coagulation and Flocculation Part I

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Colloidal Model

4.3. Electro-kinetic Phenomena and the Zeta Potential

4.4. Practical Applications of the Zeta Potential

4.5. Flocculation by Polyelectrolytes

4.6. Other Considerations



Orthokinetic Flocculation Part II


4.7. Introduction

4.8. Theory

4.9. Laboratory Testing

4.10. Practical Flocculators

4.11. Current Developments


5. Gravity Thickening


5.1. Introduction

5.2. The Sedimentation Concept

5.3. Factors Affecting Sedimentation

5.4. Thickener Design

5.5. Thickener Types

5.6. High Capacity Thickening Systems

5.7. Clarifier Types

5.8. Flocculation Feed Systems for Thickeners and Cones

5.9. Control Systems

5.10. Process Modeling


6. Hydrocyclones


6.1. Introduction and Description

6.2. Liquid Flow Patterns

6.3. Motion of Suspended Particles

6.4. Pressure Distribution within the Flow, Static Pressure Drop

6.5. Hydrocyclone Function, Design and Merits

6.6. Theories of Separation

6.7. Hydrocyclone Selection and Scale-up

6.8. Design Variations, other Design Features

6.9. Applications

6.10. Conclusions


7. Separation by Centrifugal Sedimentation


7.1. Introduction

7.2. Theoretical Performance Predictions

7.3. Equipment

7.4. Factors Affecting the Choice of Centrifugal Equipment

7.5. Recent Developments


8. Screening


8.1. Introduction

8.2. Screen Design Considerations

8.3. Screen Types

8.4. Screen Deck Materials

8.5. Screen Performance

8.6. Cost of Screening Equipment


9. Filtration Fundamentals


9.1. Introduction

9.2. Flow Rate-Pressure Drop Relationships

9.3. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Incompressible Cakes

9.4. Filtration Operations—Basic Equations, Compressible Cakes

9.5. Relationship between Specific Cake Resistance, Porosity and Specific Surface

9.6. Cake Moisture Correction—Mass Balance

9.7. Further Development of Filtration Theory

9.8. The Benefits of Pre-thickening


10. Filter Aids

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Areas of Use

10.3. Filter Aid Characteristics

10.4. Types of Filter Aid

10.5. Filter Aid Filtration

10.6. The Pre-coat Body-Feed (Pressure) Filtration System

10.7. Rotary Drum Pre-coat Filter



11. Deep Bed Filtration

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Theory

11.3. Problems of Design and Operation

11.4. Current Developments


12. Pressure Filtration

Part I-Batch Pressure Filtration

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Batch Pressure Filtration

Part II-Continuous Pressure Filtration

12.3. Continuous Pressure Filtration


13. Vacuum Filtration

Part I


13.1. Introduction

13.2. Vacuum Filtration Equipment

13.3. Filter Selection

13.4. Filtration Theory for Continuous Filters

13.5. Vacuum Filter Performance and Prediction


Part II-Horizontal Vacuum Belt Filters

13.6. Introduction

13.7. Cake Forming

13.8. Advantages of Belt Filter over Rotary Drum Filter

13.9. Is the Belt Filter Universal

13.10. Floor Areas

14. Centrifugal Filtration

14.1 Introduction

14.2. Flow through the Cake of a Filter Centrifuge

14.3. The Filtration Period in a Centrifugal Field

14.4. Measurement of the Intrinsic Permeability of a Filter Cake in a Centrifugal Field

14.5. Centrifugal Drainage

14.6. Filter Centrifuges

14.7. Practical Aspects of Centrifugal Filtration


15. Counter-Current Washing of Solids

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Mass Balance Calculations

15.3. Washing Train Design Recommendations

15.4. Applications

15.5. Conclusions


16. Problems with Fine Particle Recycling


16.1. Introduction

16.2. The Separation Characteristics of Sedimentation Processes

16.3. Unlimited Fines Build-up due to Overflow Recycling

16.4. Measures against Fines Build-up


17. Filter Media, Filter Rating

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Filter Media—General

17.3. Cartridge Filters

17.4. Rigid Porous Media

17.5. Non-woven Media

17.6. Woven Wire

17.7. Woven Fabrics

17.8. Material Selection

17.9. Filter Rating

17.10. Summary


18. Methods for Limiting Cake Growth

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Removal of Cake by Mass Forces

18.3. Mechanical Cake Removal

18.4. Dislodging of Cake by Reverse Flow

18.5. Prevention of Cake Deposition by Vibration

18.6. Cross-flow Filtration


19. Flotation


19.1. Introduction

19.2. Hydrophobicity and Flotation

19.3. Bubble Generation in Flotation Systems

19.4. Particle Size and Floatability

19.5. Bubble-Particle Aggregation

19.6. Macro-Kinetic Model of Flotation

19.7. Factors in Plant Design

19.8. Recent Developments


20. The Selection of Solid-Liquid Separation Equipment

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Sedimentation or Filtration

20.3. Sedimentation Equipment

20.4. Filtration Equipment

21. Membrane Separation


21.1. Membrane Separation Processes

21.2. Pressure-Driven Membrane Separations

21.3. Reverse Osmosis

21.4. Fluid Management

21.5. Membrane Morphology and Production

21.6. Equipment

21.7. Ultra-filtration

21.8. Cross-flow Micro-filtration

21.9. Flux Stability and Decay

21.10. Conclusions


22. High Gradient Magnetic Separation

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Theory of High Gradient Magnetic Separation

22.3. The Magnetic Processing of a Typical Ceramic Clay

22.4. Bio-magnetic Separation Processes for Heavy Metal Ions from Solution

22.5. Superconducting Magnetic Separators


23. Particle-fluid Interaction, Thermodynamics of Solid-Liquid Separation

Part I-Particle-fluid Interaction


23.1. Introduction

23.2. Motion of Particles in Fluids

23.3. Flow Through Packed Beds


Part II-Thermodynamics of Solid-Liquid Separation


23.4. Introduction

23.5. Some Notes on Entropy

23.6. Entropy Index

23.7. Criterion of Separation

23.8. Estimates of Sediment Porosity

23.9. Conclusions




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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Ladislav Svarovsky

Consultant and Head of Fine Particle Software Institute. Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Pardubice, Czech Republic. Fellow of Institution of Chemical Engineers. Member of the Sub-Committee ISM/65/2 of British Standards Institution (until 1997)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

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