Solid—Gas Separation

Solid—Gas Separation

1st Edition - January 1, 1981

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  • Author: Ladislav Svarovsky
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275147

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Description

Solid—Gas Separation presents a brief and highly technical account of the principles and technology of gas-cleaning. The book deals with three associated aspects of gas-cleaning: the relevant dimensionless groups, the efficiency of separation and the economics of gas cleaning. The text begins with the discussion of the principles of particle separation and classification of equipment; general characteristics of equipment; and dimensionless groups for modeling and equipment scale-up. Subsequent chapters are devoted to the examination of the efficiency of separation, aero-mechanical dry separators, scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and filters. The last chapter deals with the economics of gas-cleaning equipment selection. Environmental and industrial engineers will find the text very useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    1.1. Principles of Particle Separation and Classification of Equipment

    1.2. General Characteristics of Equipment

    1.2.1 Flowrate—Pressure-Drop Relationship

    1.2.2 Efficiency

    1.2.3 Economic Criteria

    1.2.4 Suitability for Different Conditions

    1.3. Dimensionless Groups for Modelling and Equipment Scale-Up

    1.3.1 The Effects of Particle Inertia and External Field of Acceleration

    1.3.2 The Effect of Diffusion

    2. Efficiency of Separation

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Basic Definitions and Mass Balance Equations

    2.2.1 Total Efficiency

    2.2.2 Grade Efficiency

    2.3. Basic Relationships Between ΕT, G(x) and Particle Size Distributions of the Products and the Feed

    2.4. Grade Efficiency Testing

    2.4.1 Test Solids

    2.4.2 Combination of the Material Streams

    2.4.3 Evaluation of Results

    2.4.4 Errors in the Measurement of Separation Efficiency

    2.4.5 Factors Affecting Efficiency of Separation

    2.5. Performance Predictions from Grade Efficiency Curves

    2.5.1 Total Efficiency Determination

    2.5.2 Determination of the Size Distribution of the Products

    2.6. The Use of Separators in Series

    2.6.1 Two Separators in Series

    2.6.2 A Concentrator with a Separator in Series

    2.6.3 A Concentrator with a Separator in Series, with Feedback

    3. Aero-Mechanical Dry Separators

    3.1. Settling Chambers

    3.1.1 Grade Efficiency Curves for Settling Chambers

    3.1.2 Design of Settling Chambers

    3.1.3 Application of Settling Chambers

    3.2. Inertial Separators

    3.3. Cyclones

    3.3.1 Introduction

    3.3.2 Dimensionless Groups and Operational Characteristics of Cyclones

    3.3.3 Selection of Cyclones from Manufacturers' Data

    3.3.4 Design of Cyclones for a Given Duty

    3.3.5 Some Notes on Cyclone Construction, Properties and Applications

    3.4. The Dual Vortex Separator

    3.4.1 Principle of Operation

    3.4.2 Design, Operational Characteristics and Properties of Dual Vortex Sepators

    3.5. The Fan Collectors

    3.5.1 Principle of Operation

    3.5.2 Properties and Applications of Fan Collectors

    4. Aero-Mechanical Wet Separators (Scrubbers)

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Types of Scrubbers

    4.2.1 Plate Scrubbers

    4.2.2 Massive Packing Scrubbers

    4.2.3 Fibre Bed Scrubbers

    4.2.4 Pre-Formed Spray Scrubbers

    4.2.5 Gas-Atomized Spray Scrubbers

    4.2.6 Centrifugal Scrubbers

    4.2.7 Baffle-Type Scrubbers

    4.2.8 Impingement-and-Entrainment Scrubbers

    4.2.9 Mechanically Aided Scrubbers

    4.2.10 Moving Bed Scrubbers

    4.2.11 Other Scrubber Designs

    4.3. Comparison of Scrubber Performance

    5. Electrostatic Precipitators

    5.1. The Physical Mechanisms Involved in Electrostatic Precipitation

    5.1.1 Particle Charging, the Corona Discharge

    5.1.2 Particle Migration Velocities

    5.1.3 The Effect of Dust Resistivity

    5.2. Types of Electrostatic Precipitators

    5.2.1 Two-Stage Designs

    5.2.2 Single-Stage Designs

    5.3. Design of the Industrial Dry Plate Precipitators

    5.3.1 The Discharge (Negative) Electrodes

    5.3.2 The Collecting (Positive) Electrodes

    5.3.3 Discharge Gap and Gas Velocity

    5.3.4 Rapping and Vibration Mechanisms

    5.3.5 Gas Distribution and Pressure Drop

    5.3.6 Insulator Heating

    5.3.7 Rectifiers

    5.3.8 Sectionalization

    5.3.9 Applications

    5.4. Wet Electrostatic Precipitators

    5.5. Performance and Operational Characteristics

    5.5.1 Separation Efficiency

    6. Filters

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Mechanisms Taking Part in Gas Filtration

    6.2.1 Inertial Separation

    6.2.2 Direct Interception

    6.2.3 Diffusion

    6.2.4 Gravity and Electrostatic Separation

    6.2.5 Screening and Blocking

    6.2.6 Aerodynamic Forces and Piezophoresis

    6.2.7 Particle—Fibre Adhesion Versus Bounce-Off and Dynamic Re-Entrainment

    6.2.8 Combinations of Separation Mechanisms

    6.2.9 Pressure Drop in Filter Media

    6.3. Types of Gas Filters

    6.3.1 Industrial Bag Filters

    6.3.2 General Air-Conditioning Filters

    6.3.3 High-Efficiency Filters

    6.3.4 Deep Bed Filters

    6.4. Filter Efficiency Testing

    7. Economics of Gas Cleaning; Equipment Selection

    7.1. Cost—Efficiency Criteria for Comparisons of Performance

    7.1.1 Literature Information on Gas-Cleaning Costs

    7.1.2 A Cost—Efficiency Criterion Based on Running Costs

    7.1.3 Electrical Energy Cost Equivalent Versus Cut Size

    7.2. Selection of Equipment

    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 136
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: January 1, 1981
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483275147

About the Author

Ladislav Svarovsky

Consultant and Head of Fine Particle Software Institute. Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Pardubice, Czech Republic. Fellow of Institution of Chemical Engineers. Member of the Sub-Committee ISM/65/2 of British Standards Institution (until 1997)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic

About the Editors

J. C. Williams

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Veterinary Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

T. Allen

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