Solid Fuels and Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids

Solid Fuels and Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids

Thermal Characterization and Analysis

2nd Edition - December 23, 2016

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  • Authors: Rafael Kandiyoti, Alan Herod, Keith Bartle, Trevor Morgan
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081007846
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081007969

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Solid Fuels and Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids: Thermal Characterisation and Analysis, Second Edition integrates the developments that have taken place since publication of the first edition in 2006. This updated material includes new insights that help unify the thermochemical reactions of biomass and coal, as well as new developments in analytical techniques, including new applications in size exclusion chromatography, several mass spectrometric techniques, and new applications of nuclear magnetic spectroscopy to the characterization of heavy hydrocarbon liquids The topics covered are essential for the energy and fuels research community, including academics, students, and research engineers working in the power, oil and gas, and renewable energy industries.

Key Features

  • Includes a description of the principles and design of experiments used for assessing the reactivities, reactions, and reaction products of coal and lignocellulosic biomass
  • Features an outline of recent advances in the analytical methodology for characterizing heavy petroleum derived fractions and products from the thermochemical reactions of coal and biomass
  • Provides a link between samples, reaction conditions, and product characteristics to help in the search for upgrading methods for heavy hydrocarbon liquids


Industry: Oil and Gas, Power, Renewables. Academia: Students and researchers in environmental sciences, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering; and physical organic chemistry

Table of Contents

    • Preface to the first edition
    • Preface to the second edition
    • 1. Fossil fuels and renewables
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 Introduction: the state of energy utilisation in brief
      • 1.2 Lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative source of energy
      • 1.3 Coal: a fuel for producing energy and a carbon source for making steel
      • 1.4 Fossil fuels: some general trends
      • 1.5 Outline: what’s in this book?
      • References
    • 2. Solid fuels: Origins and characterization
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 The structure and composition of lignocellulosic biomass – in brief
      • 2.2 Precursors and formation of coals
      • 2.3 Coal macerals and petrography
      • 2.4 The chemical composition of coals
      • References
    • 3. Pyrolysis of solid fuels: Experimental design and applications
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction: designing pyrolysis experiments
      • 3.2 Product distributions from pyrolysis experiments: general trends
      • 3.3 Designing bench-scale pyrolysis reactors: wire-mesh reactors
      • 3.4 Designing bench-scale fixed-bed (‘hot-rod’) pyrolysis reactors
      • 3.5 Bench scale fluidised-bed and entrained flow pyrolysis reactors
      • 3.6 Comparing results from several bench-scale reactors: coal pyrolysis
      • 3.7 Pyrolysis of coal macerals and kerogens: a brief excursion
      • 3.8 Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass
      • 3.9 Synergistic effects between biomass components during pyrolysis
      • 3.10 Bench-top experiments versus pilot and plant scale design and operation: is there a mismatch?
      • References
    • 4. High-pressure reactor design: Pyrolysis, hydropyrolysis and gasification
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Characterising fuel behaviour under gasification conditions
      • 4.2 Rates of char deactivation and implications for reactor design
      • 4.3 Designing a high-pressure wire-mesh reactor
      • 4.4 Designing a high-pressure bench-scale fluidised-bed reactor
      • 4.5 Gasification in three bench-scale reactors with different configurations
      • 4.6 Case studies: factors governing coal reactivity in pyrolysis and gasification
      • 4.7 Case studies: simulating entrained-flow gasification in a wire-mesh reactor
      • 4.8 Case studies: by-product formation and trace element problems in a pilot gasifier for coal and biomass
      • 4.9 Case studies: ‘zero emission carbon (ZEC)’ – gasification in steam-hydrogen mixtures
      • 4.10 Reactor design: pyrolysis, gasification and liquefaction
      • References
    • 5. Liquefaction: Thermal breakdown in the liquid phase
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction: the liquefaction of coal and biomass
      • 5.2 Liquefaction fundamentals: two stages in the solvent extraction of coals
      • 5.3 On the design of bench-scale liquefaction experiments
      • 5.4 Comparing liquefaction in the ‘flowing-solvent’ reactor and a ‘mini-bomb’
      • 5.5 Effect of solvent type on conversion, in greater detail
      • 5.6 Flowing-solvent reactor: successive extract fractions released from coal
      • 5.7 A Two stage kinetic model of primary coal liquefaction
      • 5.8 Overview: designing liquefaction experiments
      • References
    • 6. Elements of thermal breakdown: Heating rate effects and retrogressive reactions
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 The ESR spectrometry of thermal breakdown
      • 6.2 Extractables as a diagnostic tool for pre-pyrolysis phenomena
      • 6.3 How does fast heating work?
      • 6.4 Fast and slow recombination reactions in pyrolysis and liquefaction
      • 6.5 Summary: What we know about thermal breakdown in coals
      • References
    • 7. Analytical techniques for low mass materials: Method development
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Gas chromatography
      • 7.2 Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)
      • 7.3 High performance liquid chromatography
      • 7.4 Unified chromatography
      • 7.5 Combined chromatographic methods
      • 7.6 Mass spectrometric methods
      • 7.7 Aliphatic materials from coal and from petroleum
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • 8. Analytical techniques for high-mass materials: Method development
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 The SEC of complex mixtures
      • 8.3 Fractionation methods to isolate molecules of large mass or size
      • 8.4 Application of SEC and fractionation methods to samples
      • 8.5 Aggregation of small polar molecules to appear as large molecules – in NMP? A question of solvent power?
      • 8.6 Molecular mass methods – mass spectrometry of high-mass materials >500 u
      • 8.7 LD-mass spectrometry of successively eluting SEC fractions of a coal tar pitch and a petroleum asphaltene
      • 8.8 NMR methods and recent developments
      • 8.9 Summary and conclusions – structural features of the largest molecules
      • References
    • 9. In closing: The current state and new perspectives
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 The thermochemical reactions of solid fuels
      • 9.2 Characterising heavy hydrocarbon liquids
      • 9.3 Energy demand – energy supplies: the big questions
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 472
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2017
  • Published: December 23, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081007846
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081007969

About the Authors

Rafael Kandiyoti

Dr. Kandiyoti received his BS degree in Chemical Engineering from Columbia University (New York) (1965) and his PhD degree from Imperial College London (1969). He has served in the Chemical Engineering Departments of the Middle East Technical University (Ankara, Turkey, 1969-72) and Boğaziçi University (Istanbul, Turkey, 1974-80). He joined Imperial College London (1980), where he served as Professor of Chemical Engineering and co-ordinator of the Energy Engineering Group. On retirement (2008), he was appointed as “Distinguished Research Fellow” in the same department.

He has over 350 publications on (i) experimental reactor design for pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction and the thermochemical characterization of fossil fuels, biomass and waste, (ii) the chemical characterization of heavy hydrocarbon liquids and (iii) environmental aspects of power generation. He has also written on the geopolitics of transnational oil and gas transmission.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Research Fellow, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College of London, Science and Technology and Medicine

Alan Herod

Dr. Herod has published one book and 262 papers in peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, book chapters between 1964 and 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Honorary Research Fellow, Dept of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London (Retired)

Keith Bartle

Dr. Bartle is the co-author of three books and co-editor of a further three, and has published over 400 refereed research papers over the 50 years from 1964 to 2015. He has successfully supervised 41 graduate students.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Leeds Department of Chemistry, Emeritus Professor of Physical Chemistry

Trevor Morgan

Dr. Morgan has co-authored 49 peer-reviewed journal articles (9 of these as first author since 2005) which have appeared in leading journals in the areas of analytical chemistry and energy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Post-doctoral research associate, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute

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