Solid Fuel Blending

Solid Fuel Blending

Principles, Practices, and Problems

1st Edition - March 21, 2012

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  • Authors: David Tillman, Dao Duong, N. Harding
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123809339
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123809322

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Create affordable solid fuel blends that will burn efficiently while reducing the carbon footprint. Solid Fuel Blending Handbook: Principles, Practices, and Problems describes a new generation of solid fuel blending processes. The book includes discussions on such topics as flame structure and combustion performance, boiler efficiency, capacity as influenced by flue gas volume and temperature, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and emissions. Attention is given to the major types of combustion systems including stokers, pulverized coal, cyclone, and fluidized bed boilers. Specific topics considered include chlorine in one or more coals, alkali metals (e.g., K, Na) and alkali earth elements, and related topics. Coals of consideration include Appalachian, Interior Province, and Western bituminous coals; Powder River Basin (PRB) and other subbituminous coals; Fort Union and Gulf Coast lignites, and many of the off-shore coals (e.g., Adaro coal, an Indonesian subbituminous coal with very low sulfur; other off-shore coals from Germany, Poland, Australia, South Africa, Columbia, and more). Interactions between fuels and the potential for blends to be different from the parent coals will be a critical focus of this of the book.

Key Features

  • One stop source to solid fuel types and blending processes
  • Evaluate combustion systems and calculate their efficiency
  • Recognize the interactions between fuels and their potential energy output
  • Be aware of the Environmental Aspects of Fuel Blending


Power Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Energy Engineers, Energy Economist, Environmental Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, and Industrial Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication



    Chapter 1. Introduction to Fuel Blending

    1.1 Overview

    1.2 Fuel Blending for Solid Fuels

    1.3 Objectives for Blending

    1.4 Blending for the Steel Industry—The Development of Petrology

    1.5 Typical Fuel Blends

    1.6 Blends and Firing Systems

    1.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 2. Principles of Solid Fuel Blending

    2.1 Introduction: Blending for Dollars

    2.2 Designing the Most Favorable Fuel

    2.3 Influences on the Most Favorable Fuel Blend

    2.4 Developing a Fuel Blending Strategy

    2.5 Formation of Pollutants

    2.6 Fuel Blending Characteristics Influencing Deposition

    2.7 Fuel Blending and Corrosion

    2.8 Blending’s Impact on the Physical Characteristics of Solid Fuels

    2.9 Management and Control of Fuel Blending

    2.10 Conclusions

    Chapter 3. Blending Coal on Coal

    3.1 Introduction and Basic Principles

    3.2 Blending of Coal for Combustion and/or Gasification Purposes

    3.3 Combustion and Gasification Processes

    3.4 Coals Used in Commercial Applications and Their Blending Potential

    3.5 Kinetics and the Analysis of Coal Blend Reactivity

    3.6 The Behavior of Inorganic Constituents

    3.7 Managing the Coal-on-Coal Blending Process

    3.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 4. Blending Coal with Biomass

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Biomass and Coal Blending

    4.3 Cofiring: Reducing a Plant’s Carbon Footprint

    4.4 Other Reasons for Cofiring

    4.5 Cofiring in the United States and Europe

    4.6 Characteristics of Biomass

    4.7 Reactivity Measures for Biomass

    4.8 Ratios from Other Measures

    4.9 Comparisons of Biomass to Coal

    4.10 The Chemistry of Cofiring

    4.11 Burning Profiles of Biomass–Coal Blends

    4.12 Implications for Biomass–Coal Cofiring Systems

    4.13 Case Studies in Cofiring

    4.14 Conclusions

    Chapter 5. Waste Fuel–Coal Blending

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Tire-Derived Fuel

    5.3 Petroleum Coke

    5.4 Waste Plastics and Paper

    5.5 Hazardous Wastes

    5.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 6. Environmental Aspects of Fuel Blending

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Regulatory Climate as It Influences Blending and Cofiring

    6.3 Blending for Environmental and Economic Reasons

    6.4 Areas of Concern

    6.5 Ash Management for Power Plants

    6.6 Blending for Emission Benefits

    6.7 Cofiring Biomass with Coal

    6.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 7. Modeling and Fuel Blending

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The Purposes of Modeling

    7.3 Specific Applications of Modeling

    7.4 Principles of Physical Modeling

    7.5 The Basic Approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

    7.6 Modeling for Blending Purposes

    7.7 Limitations of Modeling

    7.8 Conclusions

    Chapter 8. Institutional Issues Associated with Coal Blending

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Institutional Issues Associated with Fuel Blending

    8.3 Economic Considerations Associated with Blending

    8.4 Process Modifications

    8.5 Future U.S. and World Coal Production

    8.6 Conclusions


Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: March 21, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123809339
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123809322

About the Authors

David Tillman

Affiliations and Expertise

Easton, USA

Dao Duong

N. Harding

Affiliations and Expertise

NS Harding & Associates, Salt Lake City, USA

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