Solid Electrolytes

Solid Electrolytes

General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications

1st Edition - September 28, 1978

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  • Editors: Paul Hagenmuller, W. Van Gool
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483191652

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Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in body-centered cubic structures; and materials with the fluorite and antifluorite structures. The diffraction studies of superionic conductors are covered. The significance of defects and disorder to ionic conductivity are discussed. The text describes the transport mechanisms and lattice defects. A study of the diffusion and ionic conductivity equations is presented. A chapter is devoted to the quasi-elastic neutron scattering. Another section focuses on the complex conductivity in the microwave range. The book can provide useful information to scientists, physicists, students, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1 Introduction


    Part I Theory and Experimental Method

    2 Introduction to the Theory of Solid Electrolytes

    I. Introduction

    II. Macroscopic Evidence for Liquid Nature

    III. Structural Models

    IV. Kinetic Models

    Appendix I: Theories of Liquids

    Appendix II: Experimental Techniques


    3 Crystal Structures and Fast Ionic Conduction

    I. Introduction

    II. Interstitial Motion in Body-Centered Cubic Structures

    III. Interstitial Motion in the Rutile Structure

    IV. Other Materials with Unidirectional Tunnels

    V. Materials with the Fluorite and Antifluorite Structures

    VI. Materials with Layer Structures

    VII. Materials with Three-Dimensional Arrays of Tunnels

    VIIL Structures with Isolated Tetrahedra

    IX. General Comments


    4 Diffraction Studies of Superionic Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Diffractional Fundamentals

    III. Polycrystalline Materials

    IV. Single Crystals

    V. Defects and Disorder


    5 Transport Mechanisms and Lattice Defects

    I. General

    II. Diffusion and Ionic Conductivity Equations

    III. Defects and Split Configurations

    IV. Activation Process and Transmission Coefficient

    V. Random Walk and Correlation Effects

    VI. Application to j8-Alumina

    VII. Liquidlike Transport? Conclusions


    6 High-Frequency Measurements and Interpretations

    I. Introduction and Survey

    II. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering

    III. Electromagnetic Spectra


    7 NMR Techniques for Studying Ionic Diffusion

    I. Introduction

    IL Basic Principles of NMR Observations

    III. Survey of Selected Systems


    8 Electron Spin Resonance Application to Solid Electrolytes


    1. General Considerations about Electron Spin Resonance

    9 The Influence of Crystal Structure and of Microstructure on Some Properties of Polycrystalline β-Alumina

    I. Introduction

    II. Analysis of the Electrical Properties of Polycrystalline β-Alumina

    III. The Effects of Fabrication Details on Microstructure and Properties

    IV. Summary and Concluding Remarks


    10 Low-Frequency Measurements on Solid Electrolytes and Their Interpretations

    I. Introduction

    II. General Impedance Behavior of Solid Cell System

    III. Electrical Measurement Techniques

    IV. Determination of Bulk Properties

    V. Determination of Interfacial Properties

    Appendix I. Complex Impedance and Admittances: Argand Diagrams

    Appendix II. Relationship between Complex and Transient

    Impedances: Laplace Transforms


    11 Interface Phenomena

    I. Introduction

    II. Qualitative Theory of Solid Electrolyte Interfaces


    Part II Materials

    12 Solid Electrolytes as a Materials Problem

    I. Introduction

    II. Ionic Conductivity and Lattice Defects

    III. Macroscopic Aspects of Ionic Conductivity


    13 Organic Ion Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Silver Ion Conductors

    III. Copper(I) Ion Conductors

    IV. Protonic Conductors

    V. Summary


    14 Inorganic Silver Ion Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. The Structure of α-Agl

    III. Other Structures with a Body-Centered Cubic Anion Arrangement

    IV. Structures with a Cubic Close-Packed Anion Arrangement

    V. Structures of β-Mn Type-M Ag4I5

    VI. Structural Basis for Silver Ion Conductors

    VII. Ionic Conduction and Diffusion

    VIII. Thermodynamic Properties

    IX. Special Studies

    X. Uniqueness of Ag+ as a Mobile Ion


    15 Inorganic Copper Ion Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Ionic Conductivity

    III. Thermoelectric Power

    IV. Electronic Conductivity

    V. Other Aspects

    VI. New Compounds with High Ionic Conductivity

    VII. Summary


    16 β-Aluminas

    I. Introduction

    II. Elaboration of Materials

    III. Crystal Structure of β - and β"-Phases

    IV. Relations between Layer Structure and Electrical Properties of β-Aluminas

    V. Additional Ions in β-Aluminas


    17 Ionic Conductive Glasses

    I. General Introduction

    II. Methods of Measurement of Electrical Conductivity in Vitreous Materials

    III. Main Experimental Results and Their Interpretation


    18 Oxygen Ion Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory

    III. Experimental Methods

    IV. Fluorite-Type Oxides

    V. Perovskites and Other Oxides

    VI. Interfacial Processes

    VII. Oxides as Useful Electrolytes


    19 Fluorine Ion Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. General Principles

    III. Materials with Tysonite and YFg Structures

    IV. Fluorites

    V. Applications


    20 AnBXm Solid Electrolytes

    I. Introduction

    II. A2BO4 Compounds

    III. A4BO4, A5BO4, and AA'BO4 Compounds

    IV. ABX4, A2BX5, and A3BX6 Compounds

    V. Concluding Remarks


    21 Mixed One- and Two-Dimensional Conductors

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Types

    III. Ionic Conductivity

    22 Electronic Insulators with Tunnel and Sheet Structures

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials of Hollandite Type

    III. Materials of LiNb6O15F Type

    IV. Materials of NaxFexTi2-xO4 Type

    V. Sheet Materials of Ax(LxM1-x)O2 Type


    23 Skeleton Structures

    I. Design Constraints

    II. Examples


    24 Zeolites

    I. Introduction

    II. Zeolite Structures

    III. Ion Exchange Equilibria

    IV. Ion Diffusion in Zeolite Channels


    Part III Applications

    25 High-Temperature Fuel Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles and Fundamentals of the High-Temperature Fuel Cell

    III. Present State and Problems of Development

    IV. Technical and Economic Aspects


    26 Application of Solid Electrolytes in Galvanic Cells

    Part 1 Low-Energy-Density Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Low-Energy-Density Cells


    IV. Role in Battery Cathodes and Anodes


    27 Application of Solid Electrolytes in Galvanic Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. The Sodium-Sulfur Cell

    III. The Lithium-Sulfur Cell

    IV. Other Developments

    V. Concluding Remarks


    28 Thermodynamic Measurements with Solid Electrolytes

    I. Introduction

    II. Thermodynamic Treatment of Electromotive Force Data

    III. Thermodynamic Equilibrium at Electrodes

    IV. Applications of Solid Electrolytes

    V. Recent Developments


    29 Solid-State Potentiometric Gauges for Gaseous Species

    I. Introduction

    II. Oxygen Gauges

    III. Other Gauges


    30 High-Temperature Heating Elements in Oxidizing Atmosphere

    I. Materials Used

    II. Heating Elements for Laboratory Furnaces

    III. Heating Elements for Industrial Furnaces


    31 Use of Crystalline Solid Electrolytes as Membranes in Ion-Selective Electrodes

    I. Introduction

    II. Membrane Requirements in an Ion-Specific Electrode

    III. Influence of Solid Electrolyte Solubility

    IV. Ion Size, Ion Charge, and Selectivity

    V. Interface Double Layer and Rate of Exchange between a Solid and a Liquid Electrolyte

    32 Application Prospects of Solid Electrolytes

    I. Introduction

    II. The Energy-Supply System and Solid Electrolytes

    III. Applications of Solid Electrolytes



Product details

  • No. of pages: 570
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1978
  • Published: September 28, 1978
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483191652

About the Editors

Paul Hagenmuller

W. Van Gool

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