Solar Energy Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126208504, 9780323147095

Solar Energy Engineering

1st Edition

Editors: A. A. M. Sayigh
eBook ISBN: 9780323147095
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1977
Page Count: 526
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Solar Energy Engineering is a 21-chapter text that provides ample information concerning all forms and topics of solar energy.
Chapter 1 deals with the scope and advantages of solar energy and serves as an introduction to the rest of the chapters. Chapters 2 to 5 explain the nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application. Chapters 6 to 8 outline the fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters. Chapters 9 and 11 cover optics, concentrating collectors, and solar furnaces, while Chapters 10 and 12 to 20 discuss the various applications of solar energy, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. Lastly, Chapter 21 focuses on the cost of solar appliances. Engineers, designers, and researchers in their field of solar energy will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


General Information

1. Introduction

2. The Sun and the Celestial Vault

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Sun: A Grain of Sand in a Whirling Desert Storm

2.3 The Calculation of the Angle of Incidence of Direct Radiation on an Inclined Plane

2.4 The Sun: A Spark in a Volcanic Eruption

3. Solar Irradiance, Total and Spectral

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Extraterrestrial Solar Energy

3.3 The Solar Constant

3.4 Solar Spectral Irradiance for Zero Air Mass

3.5 Variations with Sun-Earth Distance

3.6 Accuracy of the Standard Values

3.7 Variations in Solar Energy Output

3.8 Solar Energy Variation at Ground Level

3.9 Atmospheric Attenuation of Solar Energy

3.10 Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance at Ground Level

3.11 Conclusion

4. Solar Energy Availability Prediction from Climatological Data

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Estimation of Total Solar Radiation

4.3 Estimation of the Total Solar Radiation from Meteorological Data

4.4 Some Factors Which Influence Total Solar Radiation

4.5 A General Empirical Formula for Estimating Total Solar Radiation

4.6 Estimation of Direct and Diffused Radiation

4.7 Conclusion

5. Heat Transfer for Solar Energy Utilization

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Conduction

5.3 Convection

5.4 Heat Transfer with Vapor Condensation

5.5 Liquid Vaporization

5.6 Thermal Radiation

5.7 Some Heat Transfer Problems Related to Heat Exchanges

6. Solar Energy Utilization—Liquid Flat Plate Collectors

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Heat Transfer Processes

6.3 Steady State Models of Collector Performance

6.4 Some Performance Characteristics of Conventional Tube and Plate Collectors

6.5 Areas of Research Interest for Future Work

7. Convective Heat Transfer Effects within Honeycomb Structures for Flat Plate Solar Collectors

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The General Problem of Heat Transfer within Cellular Structures

7.3 Some Theoretical Aspects of the Free Convection Process for Fluid Layers

7.4 Experimental Work on Free Convection Effects

7.5 Effect of Radiation on Convective Effects in Cells

8. Solar Air Heaters and Their Applications

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Design Variations of Solar Air Heaters

8.3 Calculation of the Efficiency of a Flat Plate Solar Air Heater

8.4 Performance of Various Collector Types

8.5 Applications of Solar Air Heaters

9. Concentrating Collectors

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Point Focus Configurations—Parabolic Mirrors

9.3 Circular Fresnel Lenses

9.4 The Central Receiver

9.5 Concentration Limits

9.6 Point Focus Mountings

9.7 Fully Tracking Mounting Configurations

9.8 Kinematics of Fully Tracking Mountings

9.9 Generalized Heliostat

9.10 Line Focus Configurations

9.11 Parabolic Cylinder

9.12 Cylindrical Optical Mountings

9.13 Fixed Mirror Line Focus Systems

9.14 Semifixed Mirror Systems

9.15 Fixed-Mirror Moving-Absorber Systems

9.16 Mirror Materials

10. Solar Pond

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Forming and Maintaining the Stable Density Gradient

10.3 Absorption of Solar Radiation Incident upon the Pond

10.4 Theoretical Analyses of the Temperature Development in the Pond

10.5 Extraction of Heat from the Pond

10.6 Conclusion

11. Solar Furnaces

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Fundamentals of Solar Furnaces

11.3 Theoretical Concentrations

11.4 Design Examples

11.5 Procedures in High-Temperature Investigations Using a Solar Furnace

11.6 Conclusion

12. Photovoltaic Conversion

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Semiconductor Principles

12.3 The Band Theory of Solids

12.4 Optical Characteristics

12.5 Transport Characteristics

12.6 Photovoltaic Principles

12.7 Cell Fabrication

12.8 Photovoltaic Systems with Sunlight Concentration

12.9 Conclusions

13. Application of Solar Energy in Space

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Solar Cell Systems

13.3 Solar Cell Fabrication for Space

13.4 Future Space Cells and Systems

13.5, Other Solar Systems in Space

14. Conversion of Solar Energy into Electricity

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Direct Energy Conversion

14.3 Conversion through a Heat Stage

14.4 Conversion through Other Stages

14.5 Solar Energy Power System

14.6 Conclusions

15. Storage of Solar Energy

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Electrical Storage

15.3 Storage in the Form of Heat

15.4 Storage in the Form of Fuel

15.5 Storage in the Form of Potential Hydraulic Energy

15.6 Conclusion

16. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Requirements

16.3 Refrigeration Systems

16.4 Solar Cooling

16.5 A Place for Solar Cooling

17. Solar Heating and Cooling of Homes

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Solar System Types

17.3 System Components

17.4 Survey of Significant Solar-Heated and Cooled Residences

17.5 Conclusion

18. Solar Production of Hydrogen

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Solar-Hydrogen Energy System

18.3 Solar-Hydrogen Production

18.4 Conclusion

19. Solar Energy Measuring Equipment

19.1 Historical Background of Solar Radiometry

19.2 Basic Principles of Solar Radiometry

19.3 Pyrheliometers

19.4 Pyranometers

19.5 Sunshine Records

19.6 Standardization of Solar Radiometers

19.7 Commercial Solar Radiometers

19.8 Future Instrumentation

19.9 Summary of Milestones in Solar Radiometry

20. Fundamentals of Water Desalination

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Historical Summary

20.3 The Cost of Solar-Distilled Water

20.4 Configurations of Basin-Type Solar Stills

20.5 Prediction of Performance of Basin-Type Solar Stills

20.6 Solar Distillation with the Reuse of Heat Energy

20.7 The Use of Waste Heat in Solar Stills

20.8 Conclusion

21. The Economics of Solar Energy

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Economic Criteria

21.3 Cost of Some Solar Appliances

21.4 Conclusion




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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

A. A. M. Sayigh

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Engineering, University of Reading, UK