Solar Cells

Solar Cells

Materials, Manufacture and Operation

2nd Edition - October 26, 2012
This is the Latest Edition
  • Authors: Augustin McEvoy, L. Castaner, Tom Markvart
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869647
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080993799

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Description

Enormous leaps forward in the efficiency and the economy of solar cells are being made at a furious pace. New materials and manufacturing processes have opened up new realms of possibility for the application of solar cells. Crystalline silicon cells are increasingly making way for thin film cells, which are spawning experimentation with third-generation high-efficiency multijunction cells, carbon-nanotube based cells, UV light for voltage enhancement, and the use of the infrared spectrum for night-time operation, to name only a few recent advances. This thoroughly updated new edition of Markvart and Castaner’s Solar Cells, extracted from their industry standard Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics, is the definitive reference covering the science and operation, materials and manufacture of solar cells. It is essential reading for engineers, installers, designers, and policy-makers who need to understand the science behind the solar cells of today, and tomorrow, in order to take solar energy to the next level.

Key Features

  • A thorough update to the definitive reference to solar cells, created by a cast of international experts from industry and academia to ensure the highest quality information from multiple perspectives
  • Covers the whole spectrum of solar cell information, from basic scientific background, to the latest advances in materials, to manufacturing issues, to testing and calibration.
  • Case studies, practical examples and reports on the latest advances take the new edition of this amazing resource beyond a simple amalgamation of a vast amount of knowledge, into the realm of real world applications

Readership

Solar cell manufacturers, R&D Depts, PV equipment manufacturers and installers, environmental engineers, consultants, academics

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Part IA: Solar Cells

    Chapter IA-1. Principles of Solar Cell Operation

    1 Introduction

    2 Electrical Characteristics

    3 Optical Properties

    4 Typical Solar Cell Structures

    References

    Chapter IA-2. Semiconductor Materials and Modelling

    1 Introduction

    2 Semiconductor Band Structure

    3 Carrier Statistics in Semiconductors

    4 The Transport Equations

    5 Carrier Mobility

    6 Carrier Generation by Optical Absorption

    7 Recombination

    8 Radiation Damage

    9 Heavy Doping Effects

    10 Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter IA-3. Ideal Efficiencies

    1 Introduction

    2 Thermodynamic Efficiencies

    3 Efficiencies in Terms of Energies

    4 Efficiencies Using the Shockley Solar Cell Equation

    5 General Comments on Efficiencies

    References

    Part IB: Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Chapter IB-1. Crystalline Silicon: Manufacture and Properties

    1 Introduction

    2 Characteristics of Silicon Wafers for Use in PV Manufacturing

    3 Feedstock Silicon

    4 Crystal-Preparation Methods

    5 Shaping and Wafering

    References

    Chapter IB-2. High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cell Concepts

    1 Introduction

    2 High-Efficiency Laboratory Cells

    3 Screen-Printed Cells

    4 Laser-Processed Cells

    5 HIT Cell

    6 Rear-Contacted Cells

    7 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter IB-3. Thin Silicon Solar Cells

    1 Introduction, Background, and Scope of Review

    2 Light Trapping in Thin Silicon Solar Cells

    3 Voltage Enhancements in Thin Silicon Solar Cells

    4 Silicon Deposition and Crystal Growth for Thin Solar Cells

    5 Thin Silicon Solar Cells Based on Substrate Thinning

    6 Summary of Device Results

    References

    Part IC: Thin Film Technologies

    Chapter IC-1. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) Layers

    3 Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon (μc-Si:H) Layers

    4 Functioning of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with p–i–n and n–i–p Structures

    5 Tandem and Multijunction Solar Cells

    6 Module Production and Performance

    7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter IC-2. CdTe Thin-Film PV Modules

    1 Introduction

    2 Steps for Making Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells

    3 Making of Integrated Modules

    4 Production of CdTe Thin-Film Modules

    5 The Product and Its Application

    6 The Future

    References

    Chapter IC-3. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Material Properties

    3 Cell and Module Technology

    4 Device Physics

    5 Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter IC-4. Progress in Chalcopyrite Compound Semiconductor Research for Photovoltaic Applications and Transfer of Results into Actual Solar Cell Production

    1 Introduction

    2 Research Directions

    3 Industrialisation

    4 Conclusions and Outlook

    References

    Chapter IC-5. High-Efficiency Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells for One-Sun and Concentrator Applications

    1 Introduction

    2 Concentrator Applications of IBC Solar Cells

    3 Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells

    4 Modelling of Back-Contact Solar Cells

    5 Perimeter and Edge Recombination

    6 Manufacturing Process for Back-Contact Solar Cells

    7 Stability of Back-Contact Cells

    8 Toward 30% Efficiency Silicon Cells

    9 How to Improve the Efficiency of Back-Contact Solar Cells

    10 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter IC-6. High Efficiency III–V Multijunction Solar Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Special Aspects of III–V Multijunction Solar Cells

    3 III–V Solar Cell Concepts

    4 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part ID: Dye-Sensitized and Organic Solar Cells

    Chapter ID-1. Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

    3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    4 Future Outlook

    References

    Chapter ID-2. Organic Solar Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Organic Electronic Materials

    3 Principles of Device Operation

    4 Optimising Solar Cell Performance

    5 Production Issues

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Part II: Testing, Industry and Environment

    Chapter IIA-1. Characterization and Diagnosis of Silicon Wafers, Ingots, and Solar Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Factors Affecting Carrier Recombination

    3 Measurement of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime

    4 Relationship between Device Voltage and Carrier Lifetime

    5 Applications to Process Monitoring and Control of Silicon Solar Cells

    6 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter IIA-2. Calibration, Testing, and Monitoring of Space Solar Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Calibration of Solar Cells

    3 Testing of Space Solar Cells and Arrays

    4 Monitoring of Space Solar Cells and Arrays

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part IIB: Environment

    Chapter IIB-1. Overview of Potential Hazards

    1 Introduction

    2 Overview of Hazards in PV Manufacture

    3 Crystalline Silicon (x-Si) Solar Cells

    4 Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Solar Cells

    5 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Solar Cells

    6 Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) Solar Cells

    7 Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    8 Operation of PV Modules

    9 Photovoltaic Module Decommissioning

    10 Conclusion

    References

    Editor’s Note

    Part IIC: Industry

    Chapter IIC-1. The Photovoltaic Market

    1 Asia and the Pacific Region

    2 Emerging Markets

    References

    Chapter IIC-2. The Photovoltaic Industry

    1 Technology Mix

    2 Solar Cell Production Companies

    3 Polysilicon Supply

    4 Polysilicon Manufacturers

    References

    Appendix A: Constants, Physical Quantities, and Conversion Factors

    Appendix B: List of Principal Symbols

    Appendix C: Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Appendix D: Useful Web Sites and Journals

    Web Sites

    Journals

    Appendix E: International Standards with Relevance to Photovoltaics

    IEC Standards

    Draft IEC Standards

    ASTM Standards

    Other Standards and Guidelines

    Appendix F: Books About Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Systems, and Applications

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: October 26, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869647
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080993799
  • About the Authors

    Augustin McEvoy

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

    L. Castaner

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

    Tom Markvart

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Director, Solar Energy Laboratory School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton