COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Solar Cells - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123869647, 9780080993799

Solar Cells

2nd Edition

Materials, Manufacture and Operation

Authors: Augustin McEvoy L. Castaner Tom Markvart
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123869647
eBook ISBN: 9780080993799
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th October 2012
Page Count: 600
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Enormous leaps forward in the efficiency and the economy of solar cells are being made at a furious pace. New materials and manufacturing processes have opened up new realms of possibility for the application of solar cells. Crystalline silicon cells are increasingly making way for thin film cells, which are spawning experimentation with third-generation high-efficiency multijunction cells, carbon-nanotube based cells, UV light for voltage enhancement, and the use of the infrared spectrum for night-time operation, to name only a few recent advances.

This thoroughly updated new edition of Markvart and Castaner’s Solar Cells, extracted from their industry standard Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics, is the definitive reference covering the science and operation, materials and manufacture of solar cells. It is essential reading for engineers, installers, designers, and policy-makers who need to understand the science behind the solar cells of today, and tomorrow, in order to take solar energy to the next level.

Key Features

  • A thorough update to the definitive reference to solar cells, created by a cast of international experts from industry and academia to ensure the highest quality information from multiple perspectives
  • Covers the whole spectrum of solar cell information, from basic scientific background, to the latest advances in materials, to manufacturing issues, to testing and calibration.
  • Case studies, practical examples and reports on the latest advances take the new edition of this amazing resource beyond a simple amalgamation of a vast amount of knowledge, into the realm of real world applications


Solar cell manufacturers, R&D Depts, PV equipment manufacturers and installers, environmental engineers, consultants, academics

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Part IA: Solar Cells

Chapter IA-1. Principles of Solar Cell Operation

1 Introduction

2 Electrical Characteristics

3 Optical Properties

4 Typical Solar Cell Structures


Chapter IA-2. Semiconductor Materials and Modelling

1 Introduction

2 Semiconductor Band Structure

3 Carrier Statistics in Semiconductors

4 The Transport Equations

5 Carrier Mobility

6 Carrier Generation by Optical Absorption

7 Recombination

8 Radiation Damage

9 Heavy Doping Effects

10 Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon



Chapter IA-3. Ideal Efficiencies

1 Introduction

2 Thermodynamic Efficiencies

3 Efficiencies in Terms of Energies

4 Efficiencies Using the Shockley Solar Cell Equation

5 General Comments on Efficiencies


Part IB: Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Chapter IB-1. Crystalline Silicon: Manufacture and Properties

1 Introduction

2 Characteristics of Silicon Wafers for Use in PV Manufacturing

3 Feedstock Silicon

4 Crystal-Preparation Methods

5 Shaping and Wafering


Chapter IB-2. High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cell Concepts

1 Introduction

2 High-Efficiency Laboratory Cells

3 Screen-Printed Cells

4 Laser-Processed Cells

5 HIT Cell

6 Rear-Contacted Cells

7 Conclusions



Chapter IB-3. Thin Silicon Solar Cells

1 Introduction, Background, and Scope of Review

2 Light Trapping in Thin Silicon Solar Cells

3 Voltage Enhancements in Thin Silicon Solar Cells

4 Silicon Deposition and Crystal Growth for Thin Solar Cells

5 Thin Silicon Solar Cells Based on Substrate Thinning

6 Summary of Device Results


Part IC: Thin Film Technologies

Chapter IC-1. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) Layers

3 Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon (μc-Si:H) Layers

4 Functioning of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with p–i–n and n–i–p Structures

5 Tandem and Multijunction Solar Cells

6 Module Production and Performance

7 Conclusions


Chapter IC-2. CdTe Thin-Film PV Modules

1 Introduction

2 Steps for Making Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells

3 Making of Integrated Modules

4 Production of CdTe Thin-Film Modules

5 The Product and Its Application

6 The Future


Chapter IC-3. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Material Properties

3 Cell and Module Technology

4 Device Physics

5 Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

6 Conclusions



Chapter IC-4. Progress in Chalcopyrite Compound Semiconductor Research for Photovoltaic Applications and Transfer of Results into Actual Solar Cell Production

1 Introduction

2 Research Directions

3 Industrialisation

4 Conclusions and Outlook


Chapter IC-5. High-Efficiency Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells for One-Sun and Concentrator Applications

1 Introduction

2 Concentrator Applications of IBC Solar Cells

3 Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells

4 Modelling of Back-Contact Solar Cells

5 Perimeter and Edge Recombination

6 Manufacturing Process for Back-Contact Solar Cells

7 Stability of Back-Contact Cells

8 Toward 30% Efficiency Silicon Cells

9 How to Improve the Efficiency of Back-Contact Solar Cells

10 Conclusions



Chapter IC-6. High Efficiency III–V Multijunction Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Special Aspects of III–V Multijunction Solar Cells

3 III–V Solar Cell Concepts

4 Conclusions



Part ID: Dye-Sensitized and Organic Solar Cells

Chapter ID-1. Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells

1 Introduction

2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

4 Future Outlook


Chapter ID-2. Organic Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Organic Electronic Materials

3 Principles of Device Operation

4 Optimising Solar Cell Performance

5 Production Issues

6 Conclusions


Part II: Testing, Industry and Environment

Chapter IIA-1. Characterization and Diagnosis of Silicon Wafers, Ingots, and Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Factors Affecting Carrier Recombination

3 Measurement of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime

4 Relationship between Device Voltage and Carrier Lifetime

5 Applications to Process Monitoring and Control of Silicon Solar Cells

6 Conclusions



Chapter IIA-2. Calibration, Testing, and Monitoring of Space Solar Cells

1 Introduction

2 Calibration of Solar Cells

3 Testing of Space Solar Cells and Arrays

4 Monitoring of Space Solar Cells and Arrays



Part IIB: Environment

Chapter IIB-1. Overview of Potential Hazards

1 Introduction

2 Overview of Hazards in PV Manufacture

3 Crystalline Silicon (x-Si) Solar Cells

4 Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Solar Cells

5 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Solar Cells

6 Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) Solar Cells

7 Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) High-Efficiency Solar Cells

8 Operation of PV Modules

9 Photovoltaic Module Decommissioning

10 Conclusion


Editor’s Note

Part IIC: Industry

Chapter IIC-1. The Photovoltaic Market

1 Asia and the Pacific Region

2 Emerging Markets


Chapter IIC-2. The Photovoltaic Industry

1 Technology Mix

2 Solar Cell Production Companies

3 Polysilicon Supply

4 Polysilicon Manufacturers


Appendix A: Constants, Physical Quantities, and Conversion Factors

Appendix B: List of Principal Symbols

Appendix C: Abbreviations and Acronyms

Appendix D: Useful Web Sites and Journals

Web Sites


Appendix E: International Standards with Relevance to Photovoltaics

IEC Standards

Draft IEC Standards

ASTM Standards

Other Standards and Guidelines

Appendix F: Books About Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Systems, and Applications



No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2013
26th October 2012
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Augustin McEvoy

Affiliations and Expertise

Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland

L. Castaner

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

Tom Markvart

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Solar Energy Laboratory School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton

Ratings and Reviews