Some pioneers in soil research such as Müller and Kubiëna were as much biologists as they were soil scientists and the legendary biologist Charles Darwin was foresighted in recognizing the earthworms as instrumental in reworking the soil, thereby forming what he called "vegetable mould". Still, soil science has largely been the realm of physicists and chemists over the past decades. Whatever the reason, this picture is rapidly changing. Until recently, research on the transport and transformation of elements in soil was often concerned with either soil biota/plant relationships or with soil structure/plant relationships, if the biota were considered at all, but very few studies explicitly took the interrelationships between soil structure and soil biota into account. The conference on Soil Structure/Soil Biota Interrelationships, held at Wageningen, The Netherlands, 24-28 November 1991, was meant to bridge that gap, focussing on methods of research, organized in three levels: features, processes and effects. The proceedings of the conference are testimony of the need to intertwine the biological, morphological, physical and chemical disciplines in soil research to understand better and forecast soil properties and processes as related to land use for agricultural and other purposes.
This book should be of particular interest to soil scientists and ecologists who feel the need for a cross-disciplinary approach in soils research. It should also be a rich source of teaching material for courses in soil science and soil ecology at graduate level and above, with ample reference to studies on land use as related to agriculture and the environment.
I. Soil Features: Observation, Description and Quantification of Soil Biota In Situ; Effects of Soil Biota on Soil Structure and Soil Structure on Biota. Invited papers. Methods for the study of interrelationships between micro-organisms and soil structure (J.F. Darbyshire et al.). Observing soil biota in situ (J. Lussenhop, R. Fogel). Contributed papers. Distribution and dynamics of shrub roots in recent coastal dune valley ecosystems of Belgium (C. Ampe, R. Langohr). Transformation of the soil structure through Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta) intestinal tract (I. Barois et al.). Influence of fir root zone on soil structure in a 23 m forest transect: the fractal approach (F. Bartoli et al.). A comparison of methods for measuring water-stable aggregates: implications for determining environmental effects on soil structure (M.H. Beare, R.R. Bruce). Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure (E.B.A. Bisdom, L.W. Dekker, J.F.Th. Schoute). The physical structure of casts of Millsonia anomala (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) in shrub savanna soils (Côte d'Ivoire) (E. Blanchart, A. Bruand, P. Lavelle). Use of the minirhizotron-miniature video camera technique for measuring root dynamics (J.E. Box Jr.). Clay- or sand-polysaccharide associations as models for the interface between micro-organisms and soil: water related properties and microstructure (C. Chenu). Quantification of fungal morphology, gaseous transport and microbial dynamics in soil: an integrated framework utilising fractal geometry (J.W. Crawford, K. Ritz, I.M. Young). Some population sizes and effects of the Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) on soil structure in a selection of Scottish soils (V. Dawod, E.A. FitzPatrick). The role of roots, fungi and bacteria on clay particle organization. An experimental approach (J.M. Dorioz, M. Robert, C. Chenu). Micro-morphological studies on clay-amended and unamended loamy sand, relating survival of introduced bacteria and soil structure (C.E. Heijnen, C. Chenu, M. Robert). Earthworm burrow system development assessed by means of X-ray computed tomography (M. Joschko et al.). Roughness of soil pore surface and its effect on available habitat space of microarthropods (C. Kampichler, M. Hauser). Size and orientation of burrows made by the earthworms Aporrectodea rosea and A. caliginosa (B.M. McKenzie, A.R. Dexter). Relationships between soil porosity, root development and soil enzyme activity in cultivated soils (M. Pagliai, M. De Nobili). Semi-automatic image analysis of earthworm activity in 2D soil sections (S. Schrader). Synlocation of biological activity, roots, cracks and recent organic inputs in a sugar beet field (M. van Noordwijk et al.). Root-soil contact of field-grown winter wheat (M. van Noordwijk, D. Schoonderbeek, M.J. Kooistra). The influence of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) on the soil porosity of small microcosms (P.C.J. van Vliet et al.). Estimating orientation and width of channels and cracks at soil polished blocks - a stereological approach (H.J. Vogel, U. Weller, U. Babel). Round tables. Measurement of proliferation and biomass of fungal hyphae and roots (J. Dighton, M. Kooistra). Biological and physico-chemical processes in excrements of soil animals (A. Martin, J.C.Y. Marinissen). II. Soil Processes: Translation of Soil Features into Biologically Mediated Processes. Invited papers. Concepts and methods for studying interactions of roots and soil structure (M. van Nordwijk, G. Brouwer, K. Harmanny). The role of biology in the formation, stabilization and degradation of soil structure (J.M. Oades). Soil structure: carbon and nitrogen metabolism (J.N. Ladd, R.C. Foster, J.O. Skjemstad). Contributed papers. Effects of biocidal treatments on biological and nutritional properties of a mull-structured woodland soil (J. Alphei, S. Scheu). Methods for physical separation and characterization of soil organic matter fractions (C.A. Cambardella, E.T. Elliott). Influence of content and nature of organic matter on the structure of some sandy soils from West Africa (Ph. Dutartre et al.). Effect of inoculation with Bacillus polymyxa on soil aggregation in the wheat rhizosphere: preliminary examination (L. Gouzou et al.). Soil aggregates as microcosms of bacteria-protozoa biota (R. Hattori, T. Hattori). Aggregate stability and soil microbial processes in a soil with different cultivation (E. Kandeler, E. Murer). Carbon distribution in different compartments of forest soils (I. Kögel-Knabner, F. Ziegler). Phosphorus mineralization during laboratory incubation in soils derived from different textured parent materials (D. López-Hernanádez, M. Niņo). An improved sieving machine for estimation of soil aggregate stability (SAS) (E.J. Murer et al.). Direct measurements of oxygen microprofiles and distribution of phospholipid-P in a two-phase soil-manure system (S.O. Petersen, T.H. Nielsen, K. Hendriksen). Modelling diffusion and microbial uptake of 13C-glucose in soil aggregates (E. Priesack, G.M. Kisser-Priesack). Analysis of the microbial nutrient status in soil microcompartments: earthworm faeces from a basalt-limestone gradient (S. Scheu). The influence of soil compaction on microbial biomass and organic carbon turnover in micro- and macroaggregates (H. Şantrůçková, O. Heinemeyer, E.-A. Kaiser). Immediate effect of wetting event on microbial biomass and carbohydrate production-mediated aggregation in desert soil (S. Sarig, Y. Steinberger). A microcosmic approach to compare effects of constant and varying temperature conditions on soil structure/soil biota interrelationships (A.V. Uvarov). Microbial biomass and activity in soils with fluctuating water contents (M. Van Gestel, R. Merckx, K. Vlassak). Effects of burrowing by the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) on beech litter decomposition in an agricultural and in a forest soil (V. Wolters, M. Schaefer). The effect of location in soil on protozoal grazing of a genetically modified bacterial inoculum (D.A. Wright et al.) Round tables. The relevance of soil physical measurements on the macroscale for the description of biological processes on the microscale - Introduction to round table discussion (D.E. Smiles). III. Evaluation of Effects of Soil Features and Soil Biological Processes on Soils and Plants. Invited papers. Interrelationships between soil structure/texture, soil biota/soil organic matter and crop production (N.G. Juma). Gas, water and solute transport in soils containing macropores: a review of methodology (W.M. Edwards, M.J. Shipitalo, L.B. Owens). Simulation modelling as a method to study land qualities and crop productivity related to soil structure differences (J. Bouma, M.J.D. Hack-ten Broeke). Contributed papers. Modelling the geometry of worm burrow systems in relation with oxygen diffusion (C. Rappoldt). Relationships amongst organic matter content, heavy metal concentrations, earthworm activity, and soil microfabric on a sewage sludge disposal site (A.D. Tomlin et al.). Relationships between soil texture, physical protection of organic matter, soil biota, and C and N mineralization in grassland soils (J. Hassink et al.). A method for the three-dimensional mapping of earthworm burrow systems (T.N. Lighart, G.J.W.C. Peek, E.J. Taber). Water movement, oxygen supply and biological processes on the aggregate scale (P.A. Leffelaar). Round tables. Round Table on water movement, oxygen supply, nutrient supply, and biological processes on the micro-scale (P.A.C. Raats). Translation of soil features across levels of spatial resolution - Introduction to round table discussion (J.F.Th. Schoute).
- © Elsevier Science 1993
- 30th June 1993
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
Department of Soil Science and Geology, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, and Department of Soil Biology, DLO Institute for Soil Fertility Research, Haren, The Netherlands
Department of Soil Structure and Micromorphology, DLO The Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands