Soil Properties and Behaviour - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444411679, 9780444601360

Soil Properties and Behaviour

1st Edition

Authors: R. Young
eBook ISBN: 9780444601360
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 449
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Soil Properties and Behavior defines the structure of the soil-water system. This book provides the background of the nature of mineral particles and the existing forces between the particles in the soil system. It also examines the structure and fabric of soil, as well as their relationship with water. Furthermore, the book explores water movement and soil performance, which are related to the physics of soil-water movement and volume changes.
This book illustrates the common clay minerals in soils and discusses the methods for their identification. It also reviews the theory of one-dimensional consolidation and discusses the soil structure in consolidation and compression. The book also presents the concepts of yield and failure in soils, yield criteria, and failure theories. It also focuses on granular and cohesive soil strength, including friction properties, the intrinsic friction angle, the volumetric strain, and pore-water pressure. The last part of the book discusses soil freezing and permafrost.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Nature of soils

1.1 Introduction

Soil from a physical viewpoint

Importance of physical properties

1.2 Origin of soil

1.3 Soil classification

1.4 Procedure for the mineralogical analysis of soils

1.5 Particle-size composition of soils

Measurement of particle-size distribution

Principles of sedimentation analysis

Interpretation of accumulation curves

1.6 Basic soil properties

Weight, and volume

Consistency limits

1.7 Summary

Chapter 2. Clay minerals in soils

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Nature of clay minerals



2.3 Clay minerals common in soils



Clay mica (illite)



Interstratified minerals



Clay-mineral mixtures

Weathering of clay minerals

Occurrence of clay minerals in soils

2.4 Identification of clay minerals

X-ray diffraction

Differential thermal analysis

Infrared spectroscopy

Electron microscopy

2.5 Surface area of clays

2.6 Water and ion adsorption at clay surfaces

Hydration of clays

Electric charge

Exchangeable cations

Diffuse ion-layers

2.7 Interaction of clay particles



Particle arrangement

Flocculation and dispersion

2.8 Plasticity

Liquid and plastic limits

Interpretation of plastic limit and liquid limit

2.9 Rheotropy

Rest-hardening and structure

2.10 Summary

Chapter 3. Soil fabric and structure

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Structure and fabric

3.3 Granular soil packing

3.4 Clay soil fabric

Fabric classification

Particle arrangement in fabric units

First- and second-order fabric characterization

3.5 Pore spaces and fabric

3.6 Techniques for direct, fabric viewing

3.7 Quantification of fabric

3.8 Fabric characteristics from sedimentation

Fresh-water deposition

Deposition in salt water

3.9 Fabric alteration by compaction and compression

3.10 Summary

Chapter 4. Soil water

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Water content and its measurement


Indirect measurement of water content

4.3 The concept of soil-water potential

Buckingham's capillary potential

Component potentials

Formulation from reversible thermodynamics

Formulation from irreversible thermodynamics

Geometric concepts and soil-water potential

Terminology and units

4.4 Water retention in soils

Retention curves for different soils

Forces of water retention in soils


4.5 Measurement of soil-water potential

Measurement of water content at applied potentials

Measurement of potential in situ

Indirect measurements of potential

4.6 Secondary effects on water retention

Entrapped air


Effect of drying

Rate of potential change

Overburden load effects

Fabric effects

4.7 Use of the potential concept


Predicting water under covered areas or in swelling soils

Use of soil-water potential for clay soils

4.8 Summary

Chapter 5. Water movement in soils

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Saturated flow

Darcy's equation

Kozeny-Carmen relationship

Layered soils

Factors affecting saturated flow

Saturated flow in clays

Steady-state flow

5.3 Unsaturated flow

General considerations

Unsaturated flow equations for no volume change

Unsaturated flow equations for volume-change cases

A generalized unsaturated flow equation

5.4 Moisture profiles and wetting front advance

Diffusivity functions

5.5 Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, k or D

Steady state, k

Steady state, D

Outflow method for k

Infiltration method for D

Field measurement of k

Calculation of k from void-size distribution

5.6 Unsaturated flow mechanisms and behaviour

Interaction of salt and clay

Swelling in unsaturated flow

Flow in allophane clays

Flow due to thermal gradients

Effect of solute gradients

5.7 Infiltration into soils in the field

Distribution of water during infiltration

Infiltration equations

Factors affecting infiltration into soils

Field capacity

5.8 Summary

Chapter 6. Volume changes in clay soils

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Shrinking

Soil characteristics affecting shrinkage

Crack formation during shrinking

Measurement of shrinkage for samples

6.3 Swelling

Soil characteristics affecting swelling

Swelling pressure of soils

Mechanism of swelling

Summary of swelling

6.4 Volume changes in the field

Prediction of heave from soil properties

6.5 Summary

Chapter 7. Consolidation and compression

7.1 Introduction

Compressibility, consolidation and creep

Effective stresses

7.2 Consolidation of clay

Review of the theory for one-dimensional consolidation

7.3 Laboratory consolidation test

Estimation of total compression

7.4 Time and load-deformation curves

Load-increment ratio

7.5 Soil structure in consolidation and compression

Fabric changes in compression

Temperature effect

Structure and creep

7.6 Summary

Chapter 8. Yield and failure

8.1 Introduction

The concepts of yield and failure in soils

Principal stress space

8.2 Yield criteria

The maximum-stress theory

The maximum elastic-strain theory

The constant elastic-strain energy theory

The maximum shear-stress theory

The constant elastic strain-energy-of-distortion theory

8.3 Failure theories

8.4 Laboratory triaxial test techniques for strength measurement

Axisymmetric triaxial test

8.5 Principal stress space and admissible yield or failure criteria

The plastic potential

8.6 Summary

Chapter 9. Granular soil strength

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Friction properties

Apparent friction parameter, ϕ

Sliding and interlocking friction

9.3 Laboratory measurement of granular soil strength

Measurement of friction angle, ϕ

Stress and strain

9.4 The intrinsic friction angle

9.5 Volumetric strain

9.6 Summary

Chapter 10. Cohesive soil strength

10.1 Introduction

Analytical and physical strength parameters

10.2 Pore-water pressure

Components of pore-water pressure — fully saturated soil

Pore pressures in a partly saturated clay

Practical considerations in pore-water measurements

Pore-pressure coefficients

Laboratory determination of pore-pressure coefficients

10.3 Analytical shear strength parameters (from Mohr-Coulomb failure theory)

10.4 Mechanisms for development of shear strength

Physical and physico-chemical components of friction and cohesion

Fabric units and bonding in shear strength

Shear strength interpreted from interparticle forces

10.5 Strength and soil structure

Fabric and soil-water potential

Interpretation of fabric change from Mohr-Coulomb diagram

Anisotropic effects

10.6 Some methods and mechanisms for laboratory evaluation of strength parameters

Separation of shear strength into cohesion and friction parameters

Reaction rates and rate process

10.7 Yield and failure

Plasticity analysis

Yielding of bonded and unbonded clays


10.8 Summary

Chapter 11. Soil freezing and permafrost

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Geothermal profile

11.3 Freezing index

11.4 Frost penetration


Estimation of depth of frost penetration

11.5 Freezing in coarse-grained soils

11.6 Freezing in fine-grained soils

11.7 Heave and frost heaving pressures

Calculation of frost heaving pressures

Constraints and heaving pressures

11.8 Unfrozen water in frozen soils

Soil-water potential and unfrozen water

Water movement in frozen soils

11.9 Field frost heaving

11.10 Thermal erosion

11.11 Summary

Appendix 1. Intermolecular attraction, the hydrogen bond and the structure of water

Appendix 2A. Theoretical distribution of exchangeable ions around a single clay particle

Appendix 2B. Theoretical distribution of cations between two charged plates

Appendix 3. Soil flux and volume change in unsaturated-flow equations


Author index

Subject index


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© Elsevier 1975
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

R. Young