Soil Organic Matter

Soil Organic Matter

Its Nature, Its Role in Soil Formation and in Soil Fertility

2nd Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Author: M. M. Kononova
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483185682

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Description

Soil Organic Matter: Its Nature, Its Role in Soil Formation and in Soil Fertility focuses on the contributions of soil organic matter in soil formation and fertility, including weathering, decomposition, and synthesis of humus substances. The publication first elaborates on the main stages in the history of soil humus study and ideas on the composition of soil organic matter and nature of humus substances. Discussions focus on organic substances of individual nature, strictly humus substances in soil organic matter, and humus substances as a complex of high molecular- weight compounds. The text then examines the biochemistry of humus formation, including the role of physical, chemical, and biological factors, origin of humus substances, possible participation of lignin in the formation of humus substances, and the role of oxidizing enzymes in the synthesis of humus substances. The manuscript takes a look at the importance of organic matter in soil formation and soil fertility and the natural factors of humus formation. Topics include the role of organic matter in the weathering and decomposition of soil minerals; role of organic matter in the formation of soil structure; effect of organic matter on the growth and development of plants; and influence of chemical and physicochemical soil properties on humus formation. The publication is a dependable source material for readers interested in the influence of soil organic matter in soil formation and fertility.

Table of Contents


  • Preface to the Second English Edition

    Chapter 1. The Main Stages in the History of Soil Humus Study

    The Initial Period of Investigation

    The First Half of the 19th Century

    The Second Half of the 19th Century

    The First Two Decades of the 20th Century

    Further Investigations During the 20th Century

    The Present Stage in Soil Humus Study

    Chapter 2. Contemporary Ideas on the Composition of Soil Organic Matter and the Nature of Humus Substances

    Organic Substances of Individual Nature

    Strictly Humus Substances in Soil Organic Matter

    Methods of Isolating Humus Substances from the Soil

    Humic Acids of Soil Humus

    Humins of Soil Humus

    Fulvic (Crenic and Apocrenic) Acids

    Hymatomelanic Acids

    Humus Substances as a Complex of High-Molecular-Weight Compounds

    General Ideas on High-Molecular-Weight Compounds

    Humus Substances of Different Soils as a System of Polymers

    Humus Substances of a Single Soil as a System of Polymers

    Conclusions

    Chapter 3. The Biochemistry of Humus Formation

    The Role of Physical, Chemical and Biological Factors

    The Origin of Humus Substances

    The Possible Participation of Lignin in the Formation of Humus Substances

    The Possible Participation of Tannins in the Formation of Humus Substances

    The Possible Participation of Cellulose and Other Carbohydrates in the Formation of Humus Substances

    The Role of Oxidizing Enzymes in the Synthesis of Humus Substances

    The Formation of Humus Substances of Melanoidin Type

    The Decomposition of Humus Substances by Micro-Organisms

    Humus Formation in Plant Tissue

    Experimental Procedure

    Nature of the Changes in Plant Residues During Humification

    Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plant Residues During Humification

    Changes in the Anatomical Structure of Plant Residues During Humification

    Nature of Newly-Formed Humus Substances

    Changes in Humified Plant Residues Associated with the Activities of Animals

    Conclusions

    Chapter 4. The Importance of Organic Matter in Soil Formation and Soil Fertility

    The Role of Organic Matter in the Weathering and Decomposition of Soil Minerals

    The Role of Organic Matter in the Formation of Soil Profiles; Forms of Linkage Between Soil Organic Matter and the Mineral Part of the Soil

    The Role of Organic Matter in the Formation of Soil Structure

    Soil Organic Matter as a Source of Carbon, Nitrogen and Mineral Plant Nutrients

    The Effect of Organic Matter on the Growth and Development of Plants

    Vitamins, Auxins and Antibiotics in the Organic Part of the Soil

    Physiological Properties of Strictly Humus Substances

    Conclusions

    Chapter 5. The Natural Factors of Humus Formation

    The Role of the Plant Cover in Humus Formation

    The Role of Micro-Organisms in Soil Humus Formation

    The Influence of Hydrothermal Conditions on Humus Formation

    The Influence of Chemical and Physico-Chemical Soil Properties on Humus Formation

    Conclusions

    Chapter 6. Characteristics of the Organic Matter in the Main Soil Types of the USSR

    Main Principles Governing Humus Formation

    Humus and Nitrogen Reserves: C:N Ratio

    The Composition of Humus in Soils

    Forms of Linkage of Humus Substances in Different Soils

    Humus of Tundra Soils

    Humus of Strongly Podzolic Soils

    Humus of Sod-Podzolic Soils

    Humus of Gray Forest Soils

    Humus of Chernozems

    Humus of Chestnut Soils and Solonetses in the Dry Steppe Zone

    Humus of Brown Desert-Steppe Soils and Takyrs

    Humus of Serozems

    Humus of Krasnozems and Lateritic Soils

    Humus of Mountain Soils

    Conclusions

    Chapter 7. Changes in Soil Organic Matter Under Different Soil Management

    The Decomposition of Organic Matter Resulting from Ploughing-Up Virgin Soils and Long-Term Cultivation of Annual Crops

    Sod-Podzolic Soils

    Chernozem Soils in Zones of Moderate and Variable Moisture

    Chernozem and Chestnut Soils in Zones of Inadequate Moisture

    Irrigated Serozems

    Conclusions

    Farmyard Manure as a Source of Humus in the Soil

    Sod-Podzolic Soils

    Chernozem Soils

    Typical Serozem

    Conclusions

    The Accumulation of Organic Matter Under Natural Fallow

    The Change of Soil Organic Matter in Rotations with Perennial Herbage

    The Accumulation of Root Residues Under Perennial Herbage

    The Role of Perennial Herbage in the Formation of Soil Structure

    The Dynamics of Humus Substances in Rotations with Perennial Herbage in Different Soil-Climatic Zones

    Conclusions

    Inhibiting Effect of Fresh Plant Residues on Plant Growth

    Changes in Organic Matter Resulting from Complex Systems of Soil Improvement

    Chapter 8. Methods of Investigating Soil Organic Matter

    A. Methods of Determining the Total Content and Composition of Humus in Mineral Soils

    The Determination of Total Organic Carbon in Soils and Solutions by Tyurin's Method

    The Determination of the Composition of Humus in Mineral Soils by Tyurin's Method

    Rapid Method of Determining the Composition of Humus in Mineral Soils

    The Determination of the Optical Density of Humus Substances

    The Determination of the Coagulation (Precipitation) Threshold of Humic Acids

    B. Methods of Studying the Nature of Humus Substances

    Isolation of Humus Substances from the Soil and their Preparation for Investigation

    Rapid Methods of Determining Functional Groups in Humus Substances

    Methods of Fractionating Humus Substances

    The Use of Infra-Red Spectroscopy in Studying the Nature of Soil Humus

    C. Methods of Studying the Dynamics of Organic Matter in the Soil

    Estimation of the Aerial Mass and Roots of Plants

    Biochemical Analysis Applied to the Study of Plant Residues in the Soil

    The Dynamics of Humus and Nitrogen in Soils

    Methods of Studying the Composition of Organic Matter in Soil Solutions (Aleksandrova, 1960)

    A Short Survey of the Main Soil Types in the USSR

    The Zone of Tundra Soils

    The Zone of Podzolic and Frozen-Taiga Soils

    The Zone of Chernozem and Gray Forest Soils

    The Zone of Chestnut Soils

    The Zone of Semi-Desert and Desert Soils

    The Soils of Moist Sub-Tropical Regions

    The Soils of Mountain Regions of the USSR

    Bibliography

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483185682

About the Author

M. M. Kononova

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