Soil disinfestation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444416926, 9780444601537

Soil disinfestation

1st Edition

Editors: D Mulder
eBook ISBN: 9780444601537
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1979
Page Count: 382
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Description

Soil Disinfestation considers the effectiveness and necessity of soil disinfestation, while exposing the dangers of various treatments and the ways to overcome them. The book serves as a collection of heterogeneous articles written by a number of research workers in the field of soil science and microbial ecology.

The book is divided into five sections and comprised of 15 chapters that cover the general aspects of standard, physical, chemical, and biological soil disinfestation and the fate of pesticides in the soil. The book discusses the causes and consequences of soil contamination and detection methods. The factors that influence the efficacy of each treatment and the practical application of commonly used pesticides, such as fumigants and fungicides, are also explained in this reference. Some of the contributors also give a critical retrospect about the subjects with speculation about the trends in soil disinfestation.

Microbiologists and research workers in soil science, as well as students and novices in microbiology, pedology, and microbial ecology, will find this book invaluable for their practice and learning.

Table of Contents


List of contributors

Preface

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations and definitions

Section A: General Aspects of Soil Disinfestation

Chapter 1. Introduction

Place of soil disinfestation among different control measures

Aims and advisability of soil disinfestation

Adapting the method of disinfestation to the pathogen to be destroyed

Secondary effects of soil disinfestation treatments

Conclusion

Suggestions for further reading

Chapter 2. Aims of Soil Disinfestation

Aim

Causes of soil contamination

Consequences of soil contamination

Detection

Products and methods for disinfestation

Supervision

Legislation with regard to safety and residue

Conclusion

Section B: Physical Soil Disinfestation

Chapter 3. Flooding of Soil for Disease Control

Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in flooded soil

Effect of flooding on nematode pathogens

Effect of flooding on fungal pathogens

Effect of flooding on bacterial pathogens

Sanitation problems in flooding for disease control

Summary

References

Chapter 4. Soil Sterilization and Pasteurization

Sheet steaming

Steaming via drain pipes

Pasteurization with a steam—air mix

References

Chapter 5. Changes in Chemical Properties of Soil Caused by Steam Sterilization

Manganese

Nitrogen

Chemical effects and plant growth

Soil testing methods used

References

Section C: Chemical Soil Disinfestation

Chapter 6. Practical Aspects of the Chemical Control of Nematodes in Soil

Introduction

Some characteristics of the more widely used fumigant type nematicides

Multi-purpose fumigants

Mixtures of fumigant chemicals

Factors influencing the efficacy of fumigant type nematicides

Residual effect of nematicide treatments

Non-fumigant type nematicides

Factors influencing the efficacy of non-fumigant type nematicides

Applying non-fumigant nematicides

Side-effects of nematicides

Safety in handling nematicides

Signs and symptoms of poisoning

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 7. Computer Simulation of Fumigant Behaviour in Soil

Introduction

Physico-chemical interactions of fumigants with soil

Equations and solutions

Simulation of methyl bromide behaviour in soil

Practical applications

Summary and prospects

List of symbols and units

References

Chapter 8. Fumigation Against Fungi

Introduction

Soil treatments against fungi

Specific problems with soil fumigation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 9. Soil Fumigation Against Replant Disease of Apple

The nature and cause of apple replant disease

Response to different soil fumigants

Pot tests to indicate the potential response to pre-planting fumigation in the orchard

Effects of soil type on response to fumigation

Chloropicrin penetration and factors affecting the efficiency of fumigation

Effects of the size of zone fumigated

The interaction between rootstock and fumigation

Duration of response to fumigation: effect on cropping efficiency

Side effects of fumigating with chloropicrin

Alternatives to fumigation

Conclusions

References

Chapter 9. Appendix - Editor's comment Some Theoretical Considerations in Connection with Replant Disease of the Apple Tree

References

Chapter 10. The Fungicide-Treated Seed in the Soil

The aims of fungicide treatment of seeds

Use and limitations of fungicidal seed treatment

Testing fungicides for their essential properties

The ecological viewpoint

References

Chapter 11. The Effect of Methyl Bromide and Chloropicrin on some Chemical and Biological Properties of Soil and on the Growth and Nutrition of Wheat

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Section D: Biological Soil Disinfestation

Chapter 12. Biological Soil Disinfestation

Introduction

Fundamental: the mechanisms

Practical biological soil disinfestation

Biological soil disinfestation and integrated control programmes

References

Section E: The Fate of Pesticides in the Soil

Chapter 13. The Fate of Fumigants

Introduction

Fumigant—soil interactions

Sorption of biocides in the soil

Diffusion of biocides

Degradation and conversion reactions of soil disinfectants

Effect of biocides on soil chemistry

Release of bromide ions after soil fumigation with methyl bromide

The mobility of bromide residues in the soil

The uptake of bromide ions by plants after soil treatment

The uptake of bromide by vegetables

References

Chapter 14. The Fate of Mercury-Containing Fungicides

Introduction

Conversion in soil

Fungicides

Methylation and demethylation of mercury compounds

Transport cycles

Mercury uptake by the vegetation

References

Chapter 15. The Fate of Organic Fungicides in Soil

Introduction

Benomyl

Quintozene and HCB

Conclusion

References

Conclusions

Subject index




Details

No. of pages:
382
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601537

About the Editor

D Mulder