Soil and Environmental Chemistry - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128041789, 9780128041956

Soil and Environmental Chemistry

2nd Edition

Authors: William Bleam
eBook ISBN: 9780128041956
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128041789
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th December 2016
Page Count: 586
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Description

Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Second Edition, presents key aspects of soil chemistry in environmental science, including dose responses, risk characterization, and practical applications of calculations using spreadsheets. The book offers a holistic, practical approach to the application of environmental chemistry to soil science and is designed to equip the reader with the chemistry knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to validate and interpret data.

This updated edition features significantly revised chapters, averaging almost a 50% revision overall, including some reordering of chapters. All new problem sets and solutions are found at the end of each chapter, and linked to a companion site that reflects advances in the field, including expanded coverage of such topics as sample collection, soil moisture, soil carbon cycle models, water chemistry simulation, alkalinity, and redox reactions. There is also additional pedagogy, including key term and real-world scenarios.

This book is a must-have reference for researchers and practitioners in environmental and soil sciences, as well as intermediate and advanced students in soil science and/or environmental chemistry.

Key Features

  • Includes additional pedagogy, such as key terms and real-world scenarios
  • Supplemented by over 100 spreadsheets to migrate readers from calculator-based to spreadsheet-based problem-solving that are directly linked from the text
  • Includes example problems and solutions to enhance understanding
  • Significantly revised chapters link to a companion site that reflects advances in the field, including expanded coverage of such topics as sample collection, soil moisture, soil carbon cycle models, water chemistry simulation, alkalinity, and redox reactions

Readership

Researchers and practitioners in environmental and soil sciences; Intermediate and advanced students in soil science and/or environmental chemistry

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Second Edition Preface
  • Chapter 1: Element Abundance
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 A Brief History of the Solar System and Planet Earth
    • 1.3 Elemental Composition of Earth’s Lithosphere and Soils
    • 1.4 Enrichment and Depletion During Planetary Formation
    • 1.5 The Rock Cycle
    • 1.6 Soil Formation
    • 1.7 Element Abundance Frequency Distributions
    • 1.8 Estimating the Central Tendency of Logarithmic-Normal Distributions
    • 1.9 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Chapter 2: Chemical Hydrology
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Water Resources and the Hydrologic Cycle
    • 2.3 Saturated Zone Hydrology
    • 2.4 Vadose Zone Hydrology
    • 2.5 Soil Moisture Balance
    • 2.6 Solute Transport
    • 2.7 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Chapter 3: Clay Mineralogy and Chemistry
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Mineral Weathering
    • 3.3 Silicate Minerals: Composition, Structure, and Chemistry
    • 3.4 Clay Minerals
    • 3.5 Clay Colloid Chemistry
    • 3.6 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Chapter 4: Ion Exchange
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 The Discovery of Ion Exchange
    • 4.3 The Ion Exchange Experiment
    • 4.4 Selectivity Constants and the Ion Exchange Isotherm
    • 4.5 Interpreting the Ion Exchange Isotherm
    • 4.6 Summary
    • Appendices
    • 4.B Non-Linear Least Square Fitting of Exchange Isotherms
    • 4.C Ideal and Real Mixtures: Significance for Ion Exchange Selectivity Constant Expressions
    • 4.D Selectivity Constant Expressions: Ideal and Real Exchange-Complex Mixtures
    • 4.E Equivalent Fraction-Dependent Selectivity Coefficients
    • 4.F The Gapon Convention: Revisited
  • Chapter 5: Water Chemistry
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 The Equilibrium Constant
    • 5.2 Activity and the Equilibrium Constant
    • 5.3 Simple Equilibrium Systems
    • 5.4 Complex Equilibrium Systems
    • Appendices
    • 5.B Fugacity: The Carbon Dioxide Case
    • 5.C ChemEQL Input and Output File Formats
    • 5.D Solving Equilibrium Problems Using the RICE Table Method
    • 5.E Validating Water Chemistry Simulations
  • Chapter 6: Acid-Base Chemistry
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Acid-Base Chemistry Fundamentals
    • 6.3 Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Strong Acids and Bases
    • 6.4 Carbonate Chemistry
    • 6.5 Alkali and Sodic Soils
    • 6.6 Soil Acidity
    • 6.7 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Chapter 7: Natural Organic Matter
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Biological Attributes of Natural Organic Matter
    • 7.3 Organic Carbon Turnover and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle
    • 7.4 Chemical Properties of Natural Organic Matter
    • 7.5 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Chapter 8: Surface Chemistry and Adsorption
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Mineral and Organic Colloids as Environmental Adsorbents
    • 8.3 Adsorption Isotherm Experiments
    • 8.4 pH-Dependent Surface Charge
    • 8.5 The Adsorption Envelope Experiment
    • 8.6 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Chapter 9: Reduction-Oxidation Chemistry
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Electrochemical Principles
    • 9.3 Measurement and Interpretation of Electrochemical Potentials in Soils and Sediments
    • 9.4 Microbial Respiration
    • 9.5 Methanogenesis
    • 9.6 Summary
    • Appendices
    • 9.B Limitation of Platinum Oxidation-Reduction Electrodes
    • 9.C Standard and Biological Electrochemical Potentials for Environmental and Biological Half-Reactions (Tables 9.C.1 and 9.C.2)
    • 9.E Fermentative Anaerobic Bacteria
  • Chapter 10: Human Health and Ecological Risk Analysis
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 The Federal Risk Assessment Paradigm
    • 10.3 Dose-Response Assessment
    • 10.4 Exposure Pathway Assessment
    • 10.5 Intake Estimates
    • 10.6 Risk Characterization
    • 10.7 Exposure Mitigation
    • 10.8 Risk-Based Screening Levels
    • 10.9 Ecological Risk Assessment
    • 10.10 Summary
    • Appendices
  • Soil and Environmental Chemistry: Exercises
    • 1 Elemental Abundance
    • 2 Chemical Hydrology
    • 3 Clay Mineralogy and Chemistry
    • 4 Ion Exchange
    • 5 Water Chemistry
    • 6 Acid-Base Chemistry
    • 7 Natural Organic Matter
    • 8 Surface Chemistry and Adsorption
    • 9 Reduction-Oxidation Chemistry
    • 10 Risk Analysis
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
586
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128041956
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128041789

About the Author

William Bleam

William Bleam is Professor of Soil Science at the University of Wisconsin, USA. His research interests include physical chemistry of soil colloids and sorption processes, chemistry of humic substances, factors controlling biological availability of contaminants to micro-organisms, magnetic resonance and synchrotron studies of adsorption and precipitation. He has taught an intermediate soil chemistry course (Soil Science 321, Soil & Environmental Chemistry) since 2006. Students taking this course include undergraduate and graduate students.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

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