Social Anxiety - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123750969, 9780123785527

Social Anxiety

2nd Edition

Clinical, Developmental, and Social Perspectives

Editors: Stefan Hofmann Patricia DiBartolo
eBook ISBN: 9780123785527
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123750969
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th August 2010
Page Count: 632
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Social Anxiety Clinical, Developmental, and Social Perspectives, Second Edition, provides an interdisciplinary approach to understanding social anxiety disorder (SAD) by bringing together research across several disciplines, including social psychology, developmental psychology, behavior genetics, and clinical psychology.
The book explains the different aspects of social anxiety and social phobia in adults and children, including the evolution of terminology and constructs, assessment procedures, relationship to personality disorders, and psychopathology. It considers most prominent theoretical perspectives on social anxiety and SAD discussed by social psychologists, developmental psychologists, behavior geneticists, clinical psychologists, and psychiatrists. These theoretical perspectives emphasize different factors that can contribute to the etiology and/or maintenance of social anxiety/SAD. Treatment approaches are also discussed, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure intervention, social skills training. The contents of this volume represent some of the best views and thoughts in the field. It is hoped that the breadth of perspectives offered will help foster continued interdisciplinary dialogue and efforts toward cross-fertilization to advance the understanding, conceptualization, and treatment of chronic and debilitating social anxiety.

Key Features

  • The most comprehensive source of up-to-date data, with review articles covering a thorough deliniation of social anxiety, theoretical perspectives, and treatment approaches
    Consolidates broadly distributed literature into single source, saving researchers and clinicians time in obtaining and translating information and improving the level of further research and care they can provide
     Each chapter is written by an expert in the topic area
    Provides more fully vetted expert knowledge than any existing work
    Integrates findings from various disciplines - clinical, social and developmental psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience, - rather than focusing on only one conceptual perspective
    Provides the reader with more complete understanding of a complex phenomena, giving researchers and clinicians alike a better set of tool for furthering what we know
    Offers coverage of essential topics on which competing books fail to focus, such as: related disorders of adult and childhood; the relationship to social competence, assertiveness and perfectionism; social skills deficit hypothesis; comparison between pharmacological and psychosocial treatments; and potential mediators of change in the treatment of social anxiety disorder population


Researchers investigating anxiety disorders in general and social anxiety in particular; mental health clinicians specializing in treatment of anxiety disordres; graduate and advanced undergraduate students focused on anxiety disorders

Table of Contents


Introduction: Toward an Understanding of Social Anxiety Disorder

Delineation of Social Anxiety

Theoretical Perspectives

Treatment Approaches



Part I Delineation of Social Anxiety

1. Evolution of Terminology and Constructs in Social Anxiety and Its Disorders


Overlapping and Contrasting Emotional States


Diagnostic Nosology Classifications

Relation of Performance Deficits and Social Anxiety

Subtypes of SAD

Cultural and Developmental Considerations

Coverage Across Disciplines and Subdisciplines

Summary and Conclusions



2. Assessment of Social Anxiety and Social Phobia

The Clinical Interview

Interviewer -Rated Scales

Self -Report Measures

General Measures of Social Anxiety and Social Phobia

Measures of Theoretically Derived Components of Social Anxiety

Self -Report Measures for Children and Adolescents

Role -Playing Procedures

Thought -Listing and Thought-Endorsement Procedures

Psychophysiological Assessment



3. Shyness, Social Anxiety, and Social Anxiety Disorder




Cultural Influences

Comorbidity in a Shyness Treatment Sample

Development of Chronic Shyness

Individual Differences in Shy and Socially Phobic Individuals

Characteristics of Shy and Socially Phobic Individuals


Social Fitness Model


4. Are Embarrassment and Social Anxiety Disorder Merely Distant Cousins, or Are They Closer Kin?

The Nature of Embarrassment

Embarrassment and Social Anxiety Disorder



5. Social Anxiety Disorder and Its Relationship to Perfectionism

Perfectionism and Measures of Social Anxiety in Nonclinical Samples

Perfectionism in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

Perfectionism in Social/Evaluative Contexts

Perfectionism and Social/Evaluative Avoidance

The Effect of Treatment for Social Phobia on Perfectionism

Summary and Conclusions


6. Social Phobia as a Deficit in Social Skills


The Notion of Social Skills

Assessment of the Social Skills of Social Phobic Individuals

Skills Deficits and Social Phobia – Direct and Indirect Evidence

Social Phobia as a Problem in Social Functioning

The Treatment of Social Phobia as an Antidote to Its Etiology, or, Social Skills Training for Social Skills Deficits



7. Relation to Clinical Syndromes in Adulthood

Comorbidity in Studies Using DSM-III and DSM-III-R Criteria

Comorbidity in Studies Using DSM-IV Criteria

Comorbidity Between Social Anxiety Disorder and Other Conditions

Cross -Cultural Expressions of Comorbidity

Comment and Future Directions


8. Avoidant Personality Disorder and Its Relationship to Social Phobia


Diagnostic Issues Using The DSM

Review of Early Findings

Findings from More Recent Literature




9. Social Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Biological, Developmental and Social Considerations

History and Morphology of Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

Biological Factors

Developmental Factors

Social Factors

The Maintenance of Childhood Social Anxiety: A Cognitive Behavioral Model

Evidence -Based Treatment of Social Anxiety

Conclusion /Future Directions


Part II Theoretical Perspectives

10.Neuroendocrinology and Neuroimaging Studies of Social Anxiety Disorder


Neuroendocrinology of Social Anxiety Disorder

Neuroanatomy of Social Anxiety Disorder

Integrating Neuroendocrine and Neuroanatomical Studies

General Conclusions

Future Directions


11. Genetic Basis of Social Anxiety Disorder


Linkage Studies in Social Anxiety Disorder

Association Studies in SAD

Association Studies in Traits of Potential Relevance to SAD



12. Temperamental Contributions to the Development of Psychological Profiles

How Many Temperaments?

Genes and Neurochemistry

Other Origins of Temperament

Sources of Evidence

Variation in Reactions to the Unfamiliar

High- and Low-Reactive Infants

Assessment in the Second Year

Assessment at Four-and-a-Half Years

Assessment at Seven-and-a-Half Years

Assessment at 11 Years

Assessment at 15 Years


13. Basic Behavioral Mechanisms and Processes in Social Anxieties and Social Anxiety Disorders


Current Status of Behavioral Theory of Social Anxieties and Social Anxiety Disorder

Contemporary Behavioral Principles as a Basis for the Further Development of Theories of Social Anxieties and Social Anxiety Disorder

Summary and Conclusions



14. Cognitive Biases in Social Anxiety Disorder Nader Amir and Jessica Bomyea







15. A Cognitive Behavioral Model of Social Anxiety Disorder: Update and Extension

The Original Model

Imagery in Social Anxiety Disorder

Post -Event Processing

The Combined Cognitive Biases Hypothesis

Fear of Positive Evaluation

Emotion Dysregulation in Social Anxiety Disorder

Implications for the Rapee – Heimberg Model of Social Anxiety Disorder


16. Social Anxiety, Social Anxiety Disorder, and the Self

The Self


A Social-Cognitive Perspective

Theoretical and Research Perspectives on Social Anxiety

Theoretical and Research Perspectives on Social Anxiety Disorder

Future Directions


17. Social Anxiety, Positive Experiences, and Positive Events

A Self-Regulation Perspective on Social Anxiety

Social Anxiety and Positive Experiences

Positive Cognitions Relevant to the Social Anxiety Spectrum

Biological Markers of Diminished Rewards in Social Anxiety

Meaningful Heterogeneity in Social Anxiety



18. Social Anxiety as an Early Warning System: A Refinement and Extension of the Self-Presentation Theory of Social Anxiety

The Original Self-Presentation Theory

Extending the Self-Presentation Approach: Sociometer Theory

Social Anxiety and Interpersonal Behavior

Implications for Treatment



Part III Treatment Approaches

19. Psychopharmacology for Social Anxiety Disorder

Medication Treatments

Pharmacotherapy in Children and Adolescents



20. Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: A Treatments-by-Dimensions Review

Treatment Impact on Physiological Symptoms

Treatment Impact on Cognitive Symptoms

Treatment Impact on Overt Behavioral Performance

Overall Conclusions



21. Comparison between Psychosocial and Pharmacological Treatments

Psychosocial Treatments

Pharmacological Treatments

Comparison of Psychosocial and Pharmacological Treatments: Meta-Analyses

Comparison of Psychosocial and Pharmacological Treatments: Individual Trials

Advantages of Psychosocial Treatments

Advantages of Pharmacological Treatment

Novel Therapeutics: Combining “Cognitive Enhancers” with Psychosocial Treatment

Clinical Implications and Discussion


22. Mechanisms of Action in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder

A Model of Social Anxiety Disorder

Mechanisms of Treatment: Pharmacotherapy

Mechanisms of Treatment: CBT

Combined Pharmacotherapy and CBT

Social Skills Training

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

Other Psychosocial Treatments





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About the Editor

Stefan Hofmann

Stefan Hofmann

Stefan G. Hofmann, Ph.D. is an international expert on psychotherapy for emotional disorders. He is professor of Psychology at Boston University, where he is the Director of the Psychotherapy and Emotion Research Laboratory. Stefan was born and raised in Germany. He studied psychology at the University of Marburg, Germany, where he received his B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. He came to the US in 1991 and has been calling Boston his home since 1996. Prior to that, he was at SUNY Albany and before that at Stanford University. He has been President of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT; 2012-2013) and is presently president of the International Association for Cognitive Psychotherapy. He is presently editor-in-chief of Cognitive Therapy and Research and Associate Editor of Clinical Psychological Science and was formerly associate editor of many other journals, including the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. He is the recipient of ABCT’s Outstanding Service Award, the Aaron T. Beck Award for Excellence in Contributions to CBT by Assumption College and the Aaron T. Beck Award for Significant and Enduring Contributions to the Field of Cognitive Therapy by Academy of Cognitive Therapy. He was an advisor to the DSM-5 Development Process and was a member of the DSM-5 Anxiety Disorder Sub-Work Group, Stefan has published widely as an author of more than 300 peer-reviewed journal articles and 15 books, including An Introduction of Modern CBT (Wiley-Blackwell) and Emotion in Therapy: From Science to Practice (by Guilford Press). He is also the co-author (together with David Barlow and Mark Durand) of one of the best-selling Abnormal Psychology text books in the world, Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach (8th Edition). His research focuses on the mechanism of treatment change, translating discoveries from neuroscience into clinical applications, emotion regulation, and cultural expressions of psychopathology. Stefan has been awarded generous research grants from the NIMH and NARSAD. He is a fellow of the Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies and the Association for Psychological Science. He gave up his American Psychological Association fellowship status when he resigned in protest over the fact that APA was actively involved in torturing political prisoners. He lectures internationally, is a licensed psychologist, and is married with two children. Weblink:

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Psychology and Director, Social Anxiety Program, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

Patricia DiBartolo

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Psychology, Smith College, Northampton MA, USA

Ratings and Reviews