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Soap Manufacturing Technology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781630670658, 9781630670665

Soap Manufacturing Technology

2nd Edition

Editor: Luis Spitz
Hardcover ISBN: 9781630670658
eBook ISBN: 9781630670665
Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
Published Date: 1st June 2016
Page Count: 308
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Soap Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition, is the most authoritative and up-to-date book on soap technology available today. Editor and contributing author Luis Spitz leads a world-renowned team in providing comprehensive information on all components of soap manufacturing including formulation, performance evaluation, cleansing systems, and more. This new edition includes two new chapters, Integrated Saponification and Drying Systems and Laundry Bars, and the others are completely revised and updated.

Key Features

  • Includes new chapters and figures, tables, and text updated from the first edition
  • Serves as a technical reference book ideal for both experienced and beginning soap producers and suppliers
  • Provides an overview of the AOCS methods used for the evaluation of soap and soap products
  • Includes two new chapters on Integrated Saponification and Drying Systems and Laundry Bars


Soap producers, soap suppliers, home and personal care research and development, cosmetic chemists

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • 1: Implications of Soap Structure for Formulation and User Properties
    • Basic Chemistry
    • Glycerides
    • The Importance of the Oleate:Laurate Eutectic Mixture
    • Soap Structure–Performance Models
    • Soap/Water Interactions
    • Mush and Cracking
    • The Source of Structure Weakness
    • Consequences of Structural Weakness
    • The Implications of Structure and Mush for Cracking
    • Effects of Formulation on Cracking
    • Appendix
  • 2: Soap Structure and Phase Behavior
    • Introduction
    • Soap Molecular Structure
    • Soap Phase Structure
    • Conclusion
  • 3: Formulation of Traditional Soap Cleansing Systems
    • Introduction
    • Properties of Soap Bases
    • Colorants
    • Fragrances
    • Additives
  • 4: Chemistry, Formulation, and Performance of Syndet and Combo Bars
    • Soap pH
    • Chemistry of Synthetic Surfactants
    • Formulation of Cleansing Bars
    • Processing
    • Surfactants
    • Formulations
    • Plasticizers and Binders
    • Cast (Poured) Transparent/Translucent Syndet/Combo Cleansing Bars
    • Performance- and Appearance-Improving Additives
    • Mildness Improvers/Skin Conditioners/Moisturizers
    • Design of the Dove Beauty Bar—A Development Showcase
    • Mildness Concept
    • Mildness Evaluation Methods
    • Market Development
    • Future Trends
  • 5: Transparent and Translucent Soaps
    • Introduction
    • Soap Structure and Transparency Development
    • Typical Soap Phases, Their Properties, and Methods for Characterization
    • Translucency Development during Neat Soap Drying and Finishing
    • Cast-Melt Process and Transparency Development
  • 6: Semi-Boiled and Integrated Saponification and Drying Systems
    • Introduction
    • Traditional and Current Technology
    • Total Fatty Matter (TFM) and Water Content
    • Integrated Saponification and Drying Processing Plants for SWING Soap Production
    • Binacchi MPSD Integrated Saponification and Drying Plant
    • Mazzoni LB Integrated Toilet Soap Pellets Production Plant
    • Mazzoni LB Tubular Reactor and Saponification Loops
    • SAS Saponification Plant with JET and Three-Stage Reactors
    • SAS JET Reactor
    • Soaptec Reactor
    • Crutchers
    • Acknowledgments
  • 7: Soap Drying Systems
    • Soap Drying Systems
    • Process Flow Diagram
    • Appendix
  • 8: Bar Soap Finishing
    • Introduction
    • Processing Steps and Equipment
    • Finishing-Line Equipment
    • High-Speed Presses and Packaging Machinery
    • Cooling Systems for Plodders, Roll Mills, and Soap Press Dies
    • Acknowledgments
  • 9: Soap, Soap/Synthetic, and Synthetic Laundry Bars
    • Introduction
    • Laundry Bar Types
    • Laundry Soap Vacuum Spray Drying
    • Crutcher Applications
    • Laundry Bar Soaps Processing Plant
    • Extrusion Slugs Shaping and Engraving
    • Efflorescence
    • Combo Laundry Bar Production
    • Syndet Laundry Bar Production System
    • Laundry Bar Types
    • Laundry Bar Shapes
    • Acknowledgement
  • 10: Multicolored and Multicomponent Soap Manufacturing Systems
    • Introduction
    • Multicolored and Multicomponent Soap Types
    • Handcrafted Artisan Soaps—An Old/New Niche Market
    • Manufacturing Systems, Methods, and Product Types
    • Solid–Liquid Systems for Marbleized Soaps
    • Solid–Solid System for Marbleized Soaps
    • Solid–Solid System for Two-Tone Soaps
    • Solid–Solid System for Speckled Soaps
    • Solid–Solid Co-Extrusion Systems for Marbleized, Striped, and Two-Tone Soaps
    • Recycling Methods and Stamping Options
    • Acknowledgment
  • 11: Soap Bar Performance Evaluation Methods
    • Lather Evaluation
    • Rate of Wear and Mush
    • Wet Cracking
    • Wet-Bar Feel
    • Mildness to Skin
    • Fragrance
    • User Panel Evaluations
    • Bar Hardness
    • Rheological Characterization
    • Conclusion
  • 12: Glossary
    • Soap Calculations
    • Terminology/Definitions
    • Selected AOCS Official Test Methods
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press and AOCS Press 2017
1st June 2016
Academic Press and AOCS Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Luis Spitz

Luis Spitz has been a world-renowned expert in the soap industry for over 50 years. With a degree in chemical engineering from Wayne State University, he became an expert on soap processing while working at The Dial Corporation in Chicago. He has represented (the) Italian Manufacturers of Soap Processing Plants and Packaging Machinery and is currently an independent consultant in the soap industry.

From 1977-2015, Luis chaired and presented at numerous global conferences on soaps and detergents, including the first AOCS World Conference on Soaps and Detergents (1977) and several SODEOPEC conferences (2002, 2006, 2008, 2015). He has edited and contributed to 7 soap-related titles, including Soap Technology for the 1990’s, Soaps and Detergents - A Theoretical and Practical Review (1996), SODEOPEC (2004), the first and second editions of The Evolution of Clean - A Visual Journey through the History of Soaps and Detergents and the first edition of Soap Manufacturing Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

L. Spitz Inc., Highland Park, IL, USA

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