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Smart Technologies for Sustainable Smallholder Agriculture - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128105214, 9780128105221

Smart Technologies for Sustainable Smallholder Agriculture

1st Edition

Upscaling in Developing Countries

Editors: David Chikoye Therese Gondwe Nhamo Nhamo
Paperback ISBN: 9780128105214
eBook ISBN: 9780128105221
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th April 2017
Page Count: 330
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Smart Technologies for Sustainable Smallholder Agriculture: Upscaling in Developing Countries defines integrated climate smart agricultural technologies (ICSAT) as a suite of interconnected techniques and practices that enhance quantity and quality of agricultural products with minimum impact on the environment. These ICSAT are centered on three main pillars, increased production and income, adaptation and resilience to climate change, and minimizing GHG emissions.

This book brings together technologies contributing to the three pillars, explains the context in which they can be scaled up, and identifies research and development gaps as areas requiring further investigation. It stresses the urgency in critically analyzing and recommending ICSAT and scaling out the efforts of both developing and disseminating these in an integrated manner.

The book discusses, synthesizes, and offers alternative solutions to agriculture production systems and socio-economic development. It brings together biophysical and socioeconomic disciplines in evaluating suitable ICSAT in an effort to help reduce poverty and food insecurity.

Key Features

  • Highlights the research gaps and opportunities on climate smart agricultural technologies and institutional arrangements
  • Provides information on institutional engagements that are inclusive of value chain actors that support partnerships and the development of interactive platforms
  • Elaborates some of the effects of climate extremes on production and socioeconomic development on small farms whose impact has potentially large impact


Agricultural research and extension personnel working in a range of organizations -- in particular those who interact with and occasionally advise farmers on how best to invest in sustainable agriculture. Similarly students at tertiary institutions who need to grasp and understand the challenges and opportunities in agriculture in general and the application of climate smart approaches using modern techniques

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Smart Agriculture: Scope, Relevance, and Important Milestones to Date

  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Scoping Climate Smart Agricultural Technologies
  • 1.3. Building in Sustainability Within Climate Smart Technologies
  • 1.4. Relevance of Smart Technologies in Southern Africa
  • 1.5. The Economics of Applying Smart Technologies in Agriculture
  • 1.6. Investing Into Targeted Technologies for the Future
  • 1.7. Conclusion

Chapter 2. Climate Scenarios in Relation to Agricultural Patterns of Major Crops in Southern Africa

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Southern Africa in Climate Change and Historical Changes
  • 2.3. Climate Change Trends in Southern Africa
  • 2.4. Future Climate Scenarios Over Southern Africa
  • 2.5. Determining Future Climate Scenarios
  • 2.6. Projected Changes in Extreme Weather Events Over Southern Africa
  • 2.7. Impacts of Future Climate Scenarios on Crops and Livestock Productivity
  • 2.8. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Advancing Key Technical Interventions Through Targeted Investment

  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Climate Change, Integrated Soil Fertility Management, and Crop Production
  • 3.3. Enhancing Resource Utilization to Exploit Spatial and Temporal Opportunities
  • 3.4. The Economics of Maintaining the Drivers of ISFM’s Long-Term Investments
  • 3.5. Research Gaps
  • 3.6. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Exploring Climatic Resilience Through Genetic Improvement for Food and Income Crops

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Progress in Developing Genetic Materials Suitable for the Environmental Conditions in Southern Africa
  • 4.3. Modern Breeding Techniques for Major Crops in Africa: Maize, Soybean, and Cassava
  • 4.4. Breeding for Target Environments and Extremes of Weather and Climate
  • 4.5. Farmer Involvement in Climate Smart Traits Evaluation
  • 4.6. Making Breeding Products Available on Climate Affected Farms
  • 4.7. Conclusion

Chapter 5. Enhancing Gains From Beneficial Rhizomicrobial Symbiotic Communities in Smallholder Cropping Systems

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Defining Beneficial Symbionts for Nitrogen Fixation, Crop Enhancement, and Crop Protection
  • 5.3. Harnessing Mycorrhizal Benefits in Degraded Soils
  • 5.4. Economics of Legumes for Extremes of Weather and Climate
  • 5.5. Gaps in Future Research
  • 5.6. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Reducing Risk of Weed Infestation and Labor Burden of Weed Management in Cropping Systems

  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Weed–Crop Interactions on Smallholder Farms
  • 6.3. Environmental Factors Influencing Weed Distribution
  • 6.4. Weed Management in Smallholder Cropping Systems
  • 6.5. Yield Gains From Appropriate Weed Management Practices
  • 6.6. Research Gaps and New Approaches
  • 6.7. Conclusion

Chapter 7. Opportunities for Smallholder Farmers to Benefit From Conservation Agricultural Practices

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. CA Strengths and Weaknesses
  • 7.3. The Minimum Investment Requirements for Conservation Agriculture Systems
  • 7.4. Ecological Indicators of Sustainability
  • 7.5. Research Gaps
  • 7.6. Conclusions

Chapter 8. The Use of Integrated Research for Development in Promoting Climate Smart Technologies, the Process and Practice

  • 8.1. What Is Integrated Agriculture Research for Development?
  • 8.2. Components of IAR4D Action Research Using Participatory Research and Extension Approaches
  • 8.3. Implementing IAR4D: The Case of Establishing Cassava Innovation Platforms in Zambia and Malawi
  • 8.4. Benefits and Challenges of IAR4D and IPs
  • 8.5. Lessons Learned for Scaling Up
  • 8.6. Conclusion

Chapter 9. Taking to Scale Adaptable Climate Smart Technologies

  • 9.1. What Does Taking to Scale Mean?
  • 9.2. The Evolution of Extension Approaches
  • 9.3. Participatory Research and Extension Approaches
  • 9.4. Working With Local Communities and Their Networks
  • 9.5. Looking to the Future
  • 9.6. Conclusions

Chapter 10. Food Processing Technologies and Value Addition for Improved Food Safety and Security

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Food Production Technologies in the Modern Food Industries
  • 10.3. Modern Food Industries Are Dependent on Energy and Their Contribution to Climate Change
  • 10.4. Climate-Smart Technologies and the Food Industries
  • 10.5. Climate-Smart Technologies and Community-Based Food Processing and Infrastructure Development
  • 10.6. Climate-Smart Technology’s Enhancement of Food Value Chain and Market Linkages Within the Rural Communities
  • 10.7. Conclusion

Chapter 11. Models Supporting the Engagement of the Youth in Smart Agricultural Enterprises

  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. The Magnitude of Youth Unemployment Among Rural and Urban Youths
  • 11.3. Regional Context and the Common Programs Implemented Across Countries
  • 11.4. Identifying Opportunities and Empowering Youth: Responding to Drivers of Youth Unemployment
  • 11.5. Developmental Approaches for Engaging Youths in Smart Agriculture
  • 11.6. Use of Knowledge-Intensive Technologies to Generate Youth Employment
  • 11.7. Modeling Youth Employment Opportunities in Agriculture
  • 11.8. Conclusion

Chapter 12. Enabling Agricultural Transformation Through Climate Change Policy Engagement

  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Climate Change Situation in the Southern African Region
  • 12.3. Adoption of Key African Climate Solutions and Mainstreaming of Climate Change in National Policies
  • 12.4. Effect of Climate Change on the Vulnerable Groups and Their Preparedness (Adaptation and Resilience Measures)
  • 12.5. Conclusions

Chapter 13. Integrated Assessment of Crop–Livestock Production Systems Beyond Biophysical Methods: Role of Systems Simulation Models

  • 13.1. Introduction
  • 13.2. Methodology
  • 13.3. Results
  • 13.4. Discussion
  • 13.5. Conclusion

Chapter 14. Adaptive Livestock Production Models for Rural Livelihoods Transformation

  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. Livestock Management in a Climate-Smart Agricultural Environment
  • 14.3. Conclusion

Chapter 15. Delivering Integrated Climate-Smart Agricultural Technologies for Wider Utilization in Southern Africa

  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. Linking Smart Technologies
  • 15.3. Rethinking Organizing Value Chain Actors for Efficient Systems
  • 15.4. Targeting the Marginal Group Using Friendly Policies
  • 15.5. Conclusions


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© Academic Press 2017
10th April 2017
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
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About the Editors

David Chikoye

Dr. David Chikoye is the Director for the Regional Hub for southern Africa and the Plant Production and Heath Management thematic area. Dr Chikoye obtained his BSc from the University of Zambia, Zambia; MSc from the University of Manitoba, Canada; and a PhD from the University of Guelph, Canada. His professional background is research on weed management in the tropics.

His main research interests include assessing the response of weed seedbanks to control options, promoting the use of cover crops for weed and fertility management, integrating the use of herbicides in smallholder farms, evaluating competition between improved crop varieties and weeds under different input levels, and promoting the uptake of improved weed, crop and natural resource management options by farmers. Other experiences include leadership of a large, multidisciplinary research project focusing on demand-driven, participatory research utilizing bottom-up livelihoods approaches.

Dr Chikoye is a member of many professional organizations such as the Weed Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, African Crop Science Society, Nigeria Weed Science Society, and Southern Africa Weed Science Society. He has trained many postgraduate students and has contributed to authoring over 100 refereed journal articles and conference abstracts or proceedings. Prior to joining IITA, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Guelph and lecturer at the University of Zambia.

Affiliations and Expertise

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Southern Africa Research and Administration Hub (SARAH) Campus, Chelston, Lusaka Province, Zambia

Therese Gondwe

Therese Gondwe, a Malawian, is an active member of the information systems and humanitarian response technical working group. She worked with Feed the Children Inc. in Lilongwe, Malawi as the Program Manager prior to this appointment. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture from Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi in 1995; a postgraduate Diploma in Management of Food Security and Nutrition Programs from the International Agriculture Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands in 1997, and an MSc Degree in Agriculture Extension from Reading University, Berkshire, UK in 2001. She completed her PhD in Human and Environmental Sciences at the same University in 2008. She has several years of experience in designing, implementing, and promoting adoption of integrated food security and nutrition project activities.

Affiliations and Expertise

IITA Southern Africa Research and Administration Hub (SARAH) Campus, Chelston, Lusaka Province, Zambia

Nhamo Nhamo

Dr. Nhamo Nhamo - a Zimbabwean, is the SARD-SC Cassava Agronomist (Field Fellow) at IITA-Zambia. He was formerly an Agronomist (Consultant) at IRRI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. He worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow - Soil Fertility Agronomist at Africa Rice Center (2009-2011). Just before joining IITA, Dr Nhamo served as a Senior Lecturer at Chinhoyi University of Technology in Zimbabwe.

He obtained a PhD in Agricultural Sciences from the University of Bonn, Germany (2007), Master in Soil Fertility (2003) and BSc Agriculture Honours in Soil Science from the University of Zimbabwe (1996).

Affiliations and Expertise

Cassava Agronomist, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Southern Africa Research and Administration Hub (SARAH) Campus, Chelston, Lusaka Province, Zambia

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