Skin Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Skin Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

1st Edition - January 14, 2016

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  • Authors: Mohammad Z. Albanna, James H Holmes IV
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128017975
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128016541

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The skin is the largest human organ system. Loss of skin integrity due to injury or illness results in a substantial physiologic imbalance and ultimately in severe disability or death. From burn victims to surgical scars and plastic surgery, the therapies resulting from skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are important to a broad spectrum of patients. Skin Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine provides a translational link for biomedical researchers across fields to understand the inter-disciplinary approaches which expanded available therapies for patients and additional research collaboration.  This work expands on the primary literature on the state of the art of cell therapies and biomaterials to review the most widely used surgical therapies for the specific clinical scenarios.

Key Features

  • Explores cellular and molecular processes of wound healing, scar formation, and dermal repair
  • Includes examples of animal models for wound healing and translation to the clinical world
  • Presents the current state of, and clinical opportunities for, extracellular matrices, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials, biologic skin substitutes, and adult and fetal stem and skin cells for skin regenerative therapies and wound management
  • Discusses new innovative approaches for wound healing including skin bioprinting and directed cellular therapies


Biomedical researchers in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; stem cell researchers

Table of Contents

    • Dedication
    • List of Contributors
    • Foreword
    • Chapter 1. Anatomy, Physiology, Histology, and Immunohistochemistry of Human Skin
      • Introduction
      • Skin Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology
      • Epidermis
      • Dermoepidermal Junction
      • Dermis
      • Hypodermis
      • Wound Healing and Immunohistochemistry
    • Chapter 2. Molecular and Cellular Biology of Wound Healing and Skin Regeneration
      • Introduction
      • Fibroproliferative Disorders of the Skin
      • Medical Therapies for Skin Regeneration
      • Future Directions
      • List of Abbreviations
    • Chapter 3. Tissue Processing and Staining for Histological Analyses
      • Introduction
      • Tissue Fixation
      • Tissue Processing and Embedding
      • Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain
      • Bright Field Microscopy
      • Immunofluorescence
      • Immunohistochemistry
      • Histochemical Stains
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 4. Clinical Management of Wound Healing and Hypertrophic Scarring
      • Wound Healing and the Biomedical Burden of Its Dysfunction
      • Stages of Wound Healing
      • Pathologic Wound Healing
      • Chronic Wounds
      • Wound Healing Therapies
      • Fibroproliferative Disease
      • Scar Reduction Therapies
      • Regenerative Healing
      • Conclusion
      • List of Abbreviations
    • Chapter 5. Process Development and Manufacturing of Human and Animal Acellular Dermal Matrices
      • Introduction
      • Clinical Need
      • Development of ADMs
      • ADM Requirements
      • Processing Methodologies
      • Biological Responses to ADMs
      • Clinical Use
      • Summary
    • Chapter 6. Clinical Applications of Acellular Dermal Matrices in Reconstructive Surgery
      • Introduction
      • Animal Data
      • Clinical Applications
      • Conclusion/Future
    • Chapter 7. Advances in Acellular Extracellular Matrices (ECM) for Wound Healing
      • Introduction
      • Acellular Matrices
      • Manufacturing Process
      • Mode of Action
      • Matrix Application
      • Evidence of Acellular Matrices Use in Other Conditions
      • Conclusions
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 8. Natural Biomaterials for Skin Tissue Engineering
      • Introduction
      • Natural Biomaterials Found in ECM
      • Other Natural Biomaterials
      • Applications of Natural Biomaterials in STE
      • General Considerations on the Applicability of Biomaterials in STE
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 9. Synthetic Biomaterials for Skin Tissue Engineering
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of the Ideal Skin Substitute
      • The Need for Synthetic Materials in Skin Substitutes
      • Development of Synthetic Skin Substitutes over Time
      • Selected Patents on “Artificial Skin”
      • Selected Examples of Commercially Available Skin Substitutes
      • Limitations of Available Skin Substitutes (Problems with “Off-the-Shelf” Skin Substitutes)
      • Selected Materials and Fabrication Methods
      • Future Prospects and Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 10. Hybrid Biomaterials for Skin Tissue Engineering
      • Introduction
      • Skin: Structure and Function
      • Skin Injury
      • How Can We “Close” an Extensive Cutaneous Wound?
      • Why Do We Need Alternatives to the Skin Graft?
      • What Needs to Be Considered in Treating Deep Skin Injury/Loss?
      • An Introduction to Biodegradable Temporizing Matrices
      • An Introduction to In Vitro Dermo-epidermal (Composite) Cultured Skins
      • The Future
    • Chapter 11. Biologic Skin Substitutes
      • Introduction and Medical Needs
      • Biological Requirements and Current Alternatives
      • Deficiencies of Biologic Skin Substitutes
      • Regenerative Medicine and Mechanisms of Developmental Biology
      • Gene Therapy Approaches
      • Regulation of Skin Substitutes by the US Food and Drug Administration
      • Conclusions and Future Directions
      • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 12. Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Wound Assessment and Treatment Approach
      • Wound Healing, Then and Now
      • Wound Healing Process
      • Factors Impacting Wound Healing
      • Work-Up of a Patient with a Nonhealing Wound
      • Common Wound Etiologies/Treatment
      • Future Directions
    • Chapter 13. Current Innovations for the Treatment of Chronic Wounds
      • Burden of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
      • Wound Healing
      • Cutaneous Microbiota
      • Standard of Care
      • Advanced Bioengineered Treatment Options
      • Next-Generation Skin Substitutes
      • Tapping Innate Antimicrobials
      • Cathelicidin, a Multifunctional HDP
      • A Promising Skin Tissue with Enhanced Cathelicidin Expression
      • Safety Features of Genetically Modified Skin Tissue
      • Designer Tissues for Specific Needs
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 14. The Surgical Management of Burn Wounds
      • Epidemiology of Burn Injuries
      • Presentation of Burn Injuries
      • Resuscitation
      • Repair
    • Chapter 15. Advances in Isolation and Expansion of Human Cells for Clinical Applications
      • Introduction
      • Skin Harvesting
      • Cell Isolation
      • Cell Expansion
      • Clinical Application
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 16. Cutaneous Applications of Stem Cells for Skin Tissue Engineering
      • Introduction: Stem Cells
      • Skin-Derived Stem Cells
      • Adult Stem Cells
      • Perinatal Tissues and Stem Cells
      • Summary and Future Applications of Stem Cells in Wound Healing
    • Chapter 17. Advances in Biopharmaceutical Agents and Growth Factors for Wound Healing and Scarring
      • Introduction
      • The Transforming Growth Factor-β Family
      • Other TGF-β-Based Approaches: Decorin and Mannose 6 Phosphate
      • Modulation of Smad3/Smad7 Signaling
      • Epidermal Growth Factor Family
      • Fibroblast Growth Factor Family
      • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Family
      • Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor
      • Connective Tissue Growth Factor
      • Hepatocyte Growth Factor
      • Interleukin 10
      • Connexins
      • Other Approaches under Investigation for Scar Reduction
      • Discussion and Future Directions
      • List of Abbreviations
    • Chapter 18. Skin Models for Drug Development and Biopharmaceutical Industry
      • Outline of the Chapter
      • Introduction
      • Human Skin Models to Assess Pharmacologically Relevant Data
      • Realization of Disease Models
      • Experimental Parameters Influencing Readout
      • Gating Studies
      • Future Challenges
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 19. Animal Models for Wound Healing
      • Introduction
      • Comparative Animal Models of Wound Healing
      • Animal Models of Acute Wounds
      • Animal Models of Scarless Wound Healing
      • Animal Models of Chronic Wounds
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 20. Human Skin Bioprinting: Trajectory and Advances
      • Overview of Bioprinting
      • Skin Bioprinter Development
      • Skin Bioprinting
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 21. Translational Research of Skin Substitutes and Wound Healing Products
      • Translational Research and the Commercialization Pathway
      • Target Product Profile and Regulatory Path
      • Economic Challenges and Strategic Development Framework
      • Future Translational Needs
      • Future Directions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 466
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: January 14, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128017975
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128016541

About the Authors

Mohammad Z. Albanna

Dr. Albanna is currently the R&D Projects Lead and supervisor of the R&D department at COOK General BioTechnology, LLC, a COOK Medical company. Dr. Albanna was the team leader of skin Bioprinting clinical research programs at Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) working on utilizing autologous and allogeneic skin and stem cells for developing dermal/epidermal skin substitutes. Dr. Albanna expedited the transition of multiple skin bioprinting projects from bench-top into clinics through development of preclinical models for wound healing and skin regeneration, protocols for large scale expansion of skin and stem cells for clinical use. Dr. Albanna has several years of expertise in product development of tissue-engineered products including skin wound healing products. He is author or the co-author of several patents and publications including book chapters and peer-reviewed journals in esteemed journals in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine including two recent accepted book chapters on biomaterials for skin regeneration and acellular dermis matrices for skin regeneration and surgical reconstruction to be published in 2014 in Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials along with Dr. Holmes as a senior author.

Affiliations and Expertise

Adjunct Assistant Professor of General Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; Sr. R&D Manager, Pinnacle Transplant Technologies, Phoenix, AZ, USA

James H Holmes IV

Dr. Holmes is an Associate Professor of Surgery and the Director of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center (WFBMC) Burn Center. He is the current Chair of the American Burn Association (ABA) Southern Region. He is acting as the leading principal investigator for multiple burn clinical trials and is the current Chair of the ABA Multicenter Trials Group Burn Science Advisory Panel. He is co-author of an ABA white paper on the medical practice of treatment of wounds. He is author of many peer-reviewed journal papers and book chapters in the field of burns and wound healing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine and Director, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center (WFBMC) Burn Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

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