Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Nanostructures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845696894, 9780857091420

Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Nanostructures

1st Edition

Production, Properties and Applications in Electronics

Editors: Y. Shiraki N Usami
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696894
eBook ISBN: 9780857091420
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 26th February 2011
Page Count: 656
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Table of Contents

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Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: Structural properties of silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Crystal structure

1.3 Lattice parameters

1.4 Phase diagram

1.5 Critical thickness

1.6 Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction

1.7 Future trends

1.8 Acknowledgement

Chapter 2: Electronic band structures of silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys


2.1 Band structures

2.2 Strain effects

2.3 Effective mass

2.4 Conclusion

Part II: Formation of nanostructures

Chapter 3: Understanding crystal growth mechanisms in silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Thermodynamics of crystal growth

3.3 Fundamental growth processes

3.4 Kinetics of epitaxial growth

3.5 Heteroepitaxy

Chapter 4: Types of silicon–germanium (SiGe) bulk crystal growth methods and their applications


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Growth methods

4.3 Application of silicon–germanium (SiGe) bulk crystal to heteroepitaxy

4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Silicon–germanium (SiGe) crystal growth using molecular beam epitaxy


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Techniques

5.3 Nanostructure formation by molecular bean epitaxy (MBE)

5.4 Future trends

Chapter 6: Silicon–germanium (SiGe) crystal growth using chemical vapor deposition


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Epitaxial growth techniques – chemical vapor deposition (CVD) (ultra high vacuum CVD (UHVCVD), low pressure CVD (LPCVD), atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD), plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD))

6.3 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) heteroepitaxy by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

6.4 Doping of silicon–germanium (SiGe)

6.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 7: Strain engineering of silicon–germanium (SiGe) virtual substrates


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Compositionally graded buffer

7.3 Low-temperature buffer

7.4 Ion-implantation buffer

7.5 Other methods and future trends

Chapter 8: Formation of silicon–germanium on insulator (SGOI) substrates


8.1 Introduction: demand for virtual substrate and (Si)Ge on insulator (SGOI)

8.2 Formation of (Si)Ge on insulator (SGOI) by the Ge condensation method

8.3 Extension toward Ge on insulator

8.4 Conclusion

8.5 Acknowledgment

Chapter 9: Miscellaneous methods and materials for silicon–germanium (SiGe) based heterostructures


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Oriented growth of silicon-germanium (SiGe)on insulating films for thin film transistors and 3-D stacked devices

9.3 Heteroepitaxial growth of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys for silicon-germanium (SiGe)-based spintronic devices

9.4 Conclusion

Chapter 10: Modeling the evolution of germanium islands on silicon(001) thin films


10.1 A few considerations on epitaxial growth modeling

10.2 Introduction to Stranski–Krastanow (SK) heteroepitaxy

10.3 Onset of Stranski–Krastanow (SK) heteroepitaxy

10.4 Beyond the Stranski–Krastranow (SK) onset: SiGe intermixing

10.5 Beyond the Stranski–Krastanow (SK) onset: vertical and horizontal ordering for applications

10.6 Future trends: ordering Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001)

Chapter 11: Strain engineering of silicon–germanium (SiGe) micro- and nanostructures


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Growth insights

11.3 Island engineering

11.4 Rolled-up nanotechnology

11.5 Potential applications

11.6 Sources of further information and advice

11.7 Acknowledgments

Part III: Material properties of SiGe nanostructures

Chapter 12: Self-diffusion and dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge) and silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Diffusion mechanism

12.3 Self-diffusion in germanium (Ge)

12.4 Self-diffusion in silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys

12.5 Silicon-germanium (Si–Ge) interdiffusion

12.6 Dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge)

12.7 Dopant diffusion in silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys

12.8 Dopant segregation

12.9 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 13: Dislocations and other strain-induced defects in silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures


13.1 Introduction and background

13.2 Historical overview

13.3 Application of the Thompson tetrahedron to extended defects in silicon–germanium (SiGe)

13.4 Current topics

13.5 Future trends

13.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 14: Transport properties of silicon/silicon–germanium (Si/SiGe) nanostructures at low temperatures


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Model, disorder and transport theory

14.3 Transport in quantum wells

14.4 Transport in heterostructures

14.5 Comparison with experimental results

14.6 Discussion and future trends

14.7 Conclusions

14.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 15: Transport properties of silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures and applications in devices


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Basic transport properties of strained silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterostructures

15.3 Strain engineering

15.4 Low-dimensional transport

15.5 Carrier transport in silicon/silicon–germanium (Si/SiGe) devices

15.6 Future trends

Chapter 16: Microcavities and quantum cascade laser structures based on silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Germanium (Ge) dots microcavity photonic devices

16.3 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) quantum cascade laser (QCL) structures

16.4 Conclusions

Chapter 17: Silicide and germanide technology for interconnections in ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) applications


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Formation of silicide and germanosilicide thin films

17.3 Crystalline properties of silicides

17.4 Electrical properties

Part IV: Devices using silicon, germanium and silicon–germanium (Si, Ge and SiGe) alloys

Chapter 18: Silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) and bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) technologies


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Epitaxial growth

18.3 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT)

18.4 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductors (BiCMOS)

18.5 Applications in integrated circuit (IC) and large-scale integration (LSI)

18.6 Conclusion

Chapter 19: Silicon–germanium (SiGe)-based field effect transistors (FET) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

19.3 Conclusion

Chapter 20: High electron mobility germanium (Ge) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Gate stack formation

20.3 Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication and electron inversion layer mobility

20.4 Germanium (Ge)/metal Schottky interface and metal source/drain metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

20.5 Conclusion and future trends

20.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 21: Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) in optical devices


21.1 Background

21.2 Optical waveguides

21.3 Modulators

21.4 Photodetectors and photovoltaics

21.5 Light sources

21.6 Future trends

21.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 22: Spintronics of nanostructured manganese germanium (MnGe) dilute magnetic semiconductor


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Theories of ferromagnetism in group IV dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS)

22.3 Growth and characterizations of group IV dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) and nanostructures

22.4 Electric field-controlled ferromagnetism

22.5 Conclusion and future trends



Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices.

The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and modelling. Part three covers the material properties of SiGe nanostructures, including chapters on such topics as strain-induced defects, transport properties and microcavities and quantum cascade laser structures. In Part four, devices utilising SiGe alloys are discussed. Chapters cover ultra large scale integrated applications, MOSFETs and the use of SiGe in different types of transistors and optical devices.

With its distinguished editors and team of international contributors, Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures is a standard reference for researchers focusing on semiconductor devices and materials in industry and academia, particularly those interested in nanostructures.

Key Features

  • Reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices
  • Assesses the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys
  • Explores the formation of SiGe nanostructuresfeaturing different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition


Researchers focusing on semiconductor devices and materials in industry and academia, particularly those interested in nanostructures


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© Woodhead Publishing 2011
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This book represents a considerable collaborative state of the art review of SiGe current developments and nanostructures in electronic devices., Materials World

About the Editors

Y. Shiraki Editor

Yasuhiro Shiraki is X at Tokyo City University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise


N Usami Editor

Noritaka Usami is an Associate Professor at the Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tohoku University, Japan