Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Nanostructures

Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Nanostructures

Production, Properties and Applications in Electronics

1st Edition - February 26, 2011

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  • Editors: Y. Shiraki, N Usami
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857091420
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017395

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Description

Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices.The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and modelling. Part three covers the material properties of SiGe nanostructures, including chapters on such topics as strain-induced defects, transport properties and microcavities and quantum cascade laser structures. In Part four, devices utilising SiGe alloys are discussed. Chapters cover ultra large scale integrated applications, MOSFETs and the use of SiGe in different types of transistors and optical devices.With its distinguished editors and team of international contributors, Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures is a standard reference for researchers focusing on semiconductor devices and materials in industry and academia, particularly those interested in nanostructures.

Key Features

  • Reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices
  • Assesses the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys
  • Explores the formation of SiGe nanostructuresfeaturing different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition

Readership

Researchers focusing on semiconductor devices and materials in industry and academia, particularly those interested in nanostructures

Table of Contents

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    Preface

    Part I: Introduction

    Chapter 1: Structural properties of silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Crystal structure

    1.3 Lattice parameters

    1.4 Phase diagram

    1.5 Critical thickness

    1.6 Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction

    1.7 Future trends

    1.8 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 2: Electronic band structures of silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys

    Abstract:

    2.1 Band structures

    2.2 Strain effects

    2.3 Effective mass

    2.4 Conclusion

    Part II: Formation of nanostructures

    Chapter 3: Understanding crystal growth mechanisms in silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Thermodynamics of crystal growth

    3.3 Fundamental growth processes

    3.4 Kinetics of epitaxial growth

    3.5 Heteroepitaxy

    Chapter 4: Types of silicon–germanium (SiGe) bulk crystal growth methods and their applications

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Growth methods

    4.3 Application of silicon–germanium (SiGe) bulk crystal to heteroepitaxy

    4.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 5: Silicon–germanium (SiGe) crystal growth using molecular beam epitaxy

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Techniques

    5.3 Nanostructure formation by molecular bean epitaxy (MBE)

    5.4 Future trends

    Chapter 6: Silicon–germanium (SiGe) crystal growth using chemical vapor deposition

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Epitaxial growth techniques – chemical vapor deposition (CVD) (ultra high vacuum CVD (UHVCVD), low pressure CVD (LPCVD), atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD), plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD))

    6.3 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) heteroepitaxy by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

    6.4 Doping of silicon–germanium (SiGe)

    6.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 7: Strain engineering of silicon–germanium (SiGe) virtual substrates

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Compositionally graded buffer

    7.3 Low-temperature buffer

    7.4 Ion-implantation buffer

    7.5 Other methods and future trends

    Chapter 8: Formation of silicon–germanium on insulator (SGOI) substrates

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction: demand for virtual substrate and (Si)Ge on insulator (SGOI)

    8.2 Formation of (Si)Ge on insulator (SGOI) by the Ge condensation method

    8.3 Extension toward Ge on insulator

    8.4 Conclusion

    8.5 Acknowledgment

    Chapter 9: Miscellaneous methods and materials for silicon–germanium (SiGe) based heterostructures

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Oriented growth of silicon-germanium (SiGe)on insulating films for thin film transistors and 3-D stacked devices

    9.3 Heteroepitaxial growth of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys for silicon-germanium (SiGe)-based spintronic devices

    9.4 Conclusion

    Chapter 10: Modeling the evolution of germanium islands on silicon(001) thin films

    Abstract:

    10.1 A few considerations on epitaxial growth modeling

    10.2 Introduction to Stranski–Krastanow (SK) heteroepitaxy

    10.3 Onset of Stranski–Krastanow (SK) heteroepitaxy

    10.4 Beyond the Stranski–Krastranow (SK) onset: SiGe intermixing

    10.5 Beyond the Stranski–Krastanow (SK) onset: vertical and horizontal ordering for applications

    10.6 Future trends: ordering Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001)

    Chapter 11: Strain engineering of silicon–germanium (SiGe) micro- and nanostructures

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Growth insights

    11.3 Island engineering

    11.4 Rolled-up nanotechnology

    11.5 Potential applications

    11.6 Sources of further information and advice

    11.7 Acknowledgments

    Part III: Material properties of SiGe nanostructures

    Chapter 12: Self-diffusion and dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge) and silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Diffusion mechanism

    12.3 Self-diffusion in germanium (Ge)

    12.4 Self-diffusion in silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys

    12.5 Silicon-germanium (Si–Ge) interdiffusion

    12.6 Dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge)

    12.7 Dopant diffusion in silicon–germanium (SiGe) alloys

    12.8 Dopant segregation

    12.9 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 13: Dislocations and other strain-induced defects in silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction and background

    13.2 Historical overview

    13.3 Application of the Thompson tetrahedron to extended defects in silicon–germanium (SiGe)

    13.4 Current topics

    13.5 Future trends

    13.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 14: Transport properties of silicon/silicon–germanium (Si/SiGe) nanostructures at low temperatures

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Model, disorder and transport theory

    14.3 Transport in quantum wells

    14.4 Transport in heterostructures

    14.5 Comparison with experimental results

    14.6 Discussion and future trends

    14.7 Conclusions

    14.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 15: Transport properties of silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures and applications in devices

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Basic transport properties of strained silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterostructures

    15.3 Strain engineering

    15.4 Low-dimensional transport

    15.5 Carrier transport in silicon/silicon–germanium (Si/SiGe) devices

    15.6 Future trends

    Chapter 16: Microcavities and quantum cascade laser structures based on silicon–germanium (SiGe) nanostructures

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Germanium (Ge) dots microcavity photonic devices

    16.3 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) quantum cascade laser (QCL) structures

    16.4 Conclusions

    Chapter 17: Silicide and germanide technology for interconnections in ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) applications

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Formation of silicide and germanosilicide thin films

    17.3 Crystalline properties of silicides

    17.4 Electrical properties

    Part IV: Devices using silicon, germanium and silicon–germanium (Si, Ge and SiGe) alloys

    Chapter 18: Silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) and bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) technologies

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Epitaxial growth

    18.3 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT)

    18.4 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductors (BiCMOS)

    18.5 Applications in integrated circuit (IC) and large-scale integration (LSI)

    18.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 19: Silicon–germanium (SiGe)-based field effect transistors (FET) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies

    Abstract:

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Silicon–germanium (SiGe) channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

    19.3 Conclusion

    Chapter 20: High electron mobility germanium (Ge) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

    Abstract:

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Gate stack formation

    20.3 Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication and electron inversion layer mobility

    20.4 Germanium (Ge)/metal Schottky interface and metal source/drain metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs)

    20.5 Conclusion and future trends

    20.6 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 21: Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) in optical devices

    Abstract:

    21.1 Background

    21.2 Optical waveguides

    21.3 Modulators

    21.4 Photodetectors and photovoltaics

    21.5 Light sources

    21.6 Future trends

    21.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 22: Spintronics of nanostructured manganese germanium (MnGe) dilute magnetic semiconductor

    Abstract:

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Theories of ferromagnetism in group IV dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS)

    22.3 Growth and characterizations of group IV dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) and nanostructures

    22.4 Electric field-controlled ferromagnetism

    22.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 656
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: February 26, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857091420
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017395

About the Editors

Y. Shiraki

Yasuhiro Shiraki is X at Tokyo City University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Japan

N Usami

Noritaka Usami is an Associate Professor at the Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Tohoku University, Japan

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