Silicon Carbide Biotechnology

Silicon Carbide Biotechnology

A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications

2nd Edition - March 1, 2016

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  • Editor: Stephen Saddow
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128029930
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128030059

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Silicon Carbide Biotechnology: A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications, Second Edition, provides the latest information on this wide-band-gap semiconductor material that the body does not reject as a foreign (i.e., not organic) material and its potential to further advance biomedical applications. SiC devices offer high power densities and low energy losses, enabling lighter, more compact, and higher efficiency products for biocompatible and long-term in vivo applications, including heart stent coatings, bone implant scaffolds, neurological implants and sensors, glucose sensors, brain-machine-interface devices, smart bone implants, and organ implants. This book provides the materials and biomedical engineering communities with a seminal reference book on SiC for developing technology, and is a resource for practitioners eager to identify and implement advanced engineering solutions to their everyday medical problems for which they currently lack long-term, cost-effective solutions.

Key Features

  • Discusses the properties, processing, characterization, and application of silicon carbide biomedical materials and related technology
  • Assesses literature, patents, and FDA approvals for clinical trials, enabling rapid assimilation of data from current disparate sources and promoting the transition from technology R&D, to clinical trials
  • Includes more on applications and devices, such as SiC nanowires, biofunctionalized devices, micro-electrode arrays, heart stent/cardiovascular coatings, and continuous glucose sensors, in this new edition


Biomedical and materials engineers and scientists, device professionals and related specialists searching for a robust biomedical option for implantation with semiconductor effects

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Silicon Carbide Materials for Biomedical Applications

    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Preamble
    • 1.2. Introduction to the second edition
    • 1.3. Summary to the second edition
    • 1.4. Introduction to the first edition
    • 1.5. Silicon carbide – materials overview
    • 1.6. Silicon carbide material growth and processing
    • 1.7. Silicon carbide as a biomedical material
    • 1.8. Summary to the first edition
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 2: Cytotoxicity of 3C–SiC Investigated Through Strict Adherence to ISO 10993

    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. In vitro biomedical testing methods for cytotoxicity
    • 2.3. Improved ISO 10993: the BAMBI method
    • 2.4. 3C–SiC in vitro evaluation
    • 2.5. Summary and the future of 3C–SiC biomedical testing
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 3: Study of the Hemocompatibility of 3C–SiC and a-SiC Films Using ISO 10993-4

    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. In vitro biomedical testing methods for cytotoxicity
    • 3.3. In vitro assay to assess hemocompatibility of SiC
    • 3.4. Summary
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 4: Graphene Functionalization for Biosensor Applications

    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Production of graphene
    • 4.3. Graphene characterization methods
    • 4.4. Functionalization chemistries
    • 4.5. Biofunctionalization
    • 4.6. Effect on transport properties
    • 4.7. Applications

    Chapter 5: SiC Biosensing and Electrochemical Sensing: State of the Art and Perspectives

    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. SiC and biomedical applications
    • 5.3. Electrochemical biosensors
    • 5.4. SiC- and PEDOT:PSS-based biosensors—a complementary competition
    • 5.5. SiC-based field effect transistors in biosensing: perspectives and challenges
    • 5.6. Conclusions

    Chapter 6: SiC RF Antennas for In Vivo Glucose Monitoring and WiFi Applications

    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Blood-glucose monitoring methods
    • 6.3. SiC for RF biotechnology
    • 6.4. SiC RF antenna development for CGM
    • 6.5. Sensor platform development for the ISM band
    • 6.6. Summary and future work

    Chapter 7: In Vivo Exploration of Robust Implantable Devices Constructed From Biocompatible 3C–SiC

    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Corrosion and chemical resilience
    • 7.3. In vivo performance
    • 7.4. 3C–SiC for BMI applications—an update
    • 7.5. Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 8: Amorphous Silicon Carbide for Neural Interface Applications

    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Biotic and abiotic mechanisms of device failure
    • 8.3. Role of the material choice in the tissue response
    • 8.4. In vitro “neurocompatibility” of a-SiC
    • 8.5. In vivo tissue response to a-SiC-coated probes
    • 8.6. Summary
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 9: SiC Nanowire-Based Transistors for Electrical DNA Detection

    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Elaboration of SiC nanostructures
    • 9.3. Technological process of nanoFETs
    • 9.4. Functionalization and DNA hybridization
    • 9.5. Electrical detection of DNA
    • 9.6. Summary
    • Acknowledgments

    Chapter 10: Silicon Carbide-Based Nanowires for Biomedical Applications

    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. 3C–SiC–SiO2 core–shell nanowires: growth, structure, and luminescence properties
    • 10.3. In vitro cytocompatibility of 3C–SiC–SiO2 nanowires
    • 10.4. Functionalized 3C–SiC–SiOx nanowires for X-ray-excited photodynamic therapy in vitro
    • 10.5. Nanowire platforms: in vitro cytocompatibility and platelet activation
    • 10.6. Summary
    • Acknowledgments

Product details

  • No. of pages: 378
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2016
  • Published: March 1, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128029930
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128030059

About the Editor

Stephen Saddow

Dr. Stephen E. Saddow is currently a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Medical Engineering, both departments in the College of Engineering at the University of South Florida (USF), Tampa. In 2020, he was appointed as a visiting researcher in the Molecular Imaging Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD to facilitate the development of SiC-based nanoparticles to treat deep tissue cancer using near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT). He is also a visiting scientist in the Elettra synchrotron light source in Trieste, Italy (BEAR beamline). He was elected Fellow of the AIMBE and is a senior member of both the IEEE and National Academy of Inventors. His group has demonstrated the compatibility of SiC and graphene to numerous cell lines in vitro and to the central nervous system of wild-type mice to cubic SiC (3C-SiC) in vivo. Studies include the MRI compatibility of 3C-SiC for neural probe applications as well as the ability to noninvasively detect changes in patient glucose levels without the need of needles that require frequent swap-out. The hemocompatibility of 3C-SiC has been established leading to the demonstration that 3C-SiC passed all phases of ISO-10993 testing, which is necessary to secure FDA approval for human clinical trials. He holds several patents relating to SiC biomedical devices, such as implantable glucose sensors and neural implants. He has more than 150 publications on SiC materials and devices and has edited two books on this topic: 'Silicon Carbide Biotechnology: A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications' (Elsevier, 2012) and 'Silicon Carbide Biotechnology: A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications, Second Edition' (Elsevier, 2016). His research interests include the development of advanced biomedical devices for human healthcare applications where he works at the nexus of material and biological science to engineer long-term, in vivo medical devices based on silicon carbide and its derivatives.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

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