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Silicon Carbide Biotechnology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123859068, 9780123859075

Silicon Carbide Biotechnology

1st Edition

A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications

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Editor: Stephen Saddow
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123859068
Paperback ISBN: 9780128103548
eBook ISBN: 9780123859075
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 28th November 2011
Page Count: 495
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Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor biocompatible material that has the potential to advance advanced biomedical applications. SiC devices offer higher power densities and lower energy losses, enabling lighter, more compact and higher efficiency products for biocompatible and long-term in vivo applications ranging from heart stent coatings and bone implant scaffolds to neurological implants and sensors.

The main problem facing the medical community today is the lack of biocompatible materials that are also capable of electronic operation. Such devices are currently implemented using silicon technology, which either has to be hermetically sealed so it cannot interact with the body or the material is only stable in vivo for short periods of time.

For long term use (permanent implanted devices such as glucose sensors, brain-machine-interface devices, smart bone and organ implants) a more robust material that the body does not recognize and reject as a foreign (i.e., not organic) material is needed. Silicon Carbide has been proven to be just such a material and will open up a whole new host of fields by allowing the development of advanced biomedical devices never before possible for long-term use in vivo.

This book not only provides the materials and biomedical engineering communities with a seminal reference book on SiC that they can use to further develop the technology, it also provides a technology resource for medical doctors and practitioners who are hungry to identify and implement advanced engineering solutions to their everyday medical problems that currently lack long term, cost effective solutions.

Key Features

  • Discusses Silicon Carbide biomedical materials and technology in terms of their properties, processing, characterization, and application, in one book, from leading professionals and scientists
  • Critical assesses existing literature, patents and FDA approvals for clinical trials, enabling the rapid assimilation of important data from the current disparate sources and promoting the transition from technology research and development to clinical trials
  • Explores long-term use and applications in vivo in devices and applications with advanced sensing and semiconducting properties, pointing to new product devekipment particularly within brain trauma, bone implants, sub-cutaneous sensors and advanced kidney dialysis devices


Biomedical engineers, biochemists, device professionals and related medical specialists searching for a robust biomedical option for implantation with semiconductor effects in terms of selection of SiC materials / sensors / devices / implants for either further research and development and for further product exploitation.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Silicon Carbide Materials for Biomedical Applications

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Silicon Carbide—Materials Overview

1.3. Silicon Carbide Material Growth and Processing

1.4. Silicon Carbide as a Biomedical Material

1.5. Summary

Chapter 2. SiC Films and Coatings

2.1. Introduction

2.2. SiC CVD Introduction

2.3. Amorphous Silicon Carbide, a Sic

2.4. Polycrystalline SiC Films

2.5. Single-Crystalline SiC Films

2.6. 3C-SiC Heteroepitaxial Growth on Novel Substrates

2.7. Summary

Chapter 3. Multifunctional SiC Surfaces

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Surface Terminations

3.3. Organic Surface Modification via Self-Assembly Techniques

3.4. Polymer Brushes

3.5. Increased Cell Proliferation on SiC-Modified Surfaces

3.6. Conclusion

Chapter 4. SiC In Vitro Biocompatibility

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Cell Cultures on Single-Crystal SiC Surfaces

4.3. Influence of Surface Properties on Cell Adhesion and Proliferation

4.4. Cleaning of SiC Surfaces for Bioapplications: RCA versus Piranha

4.5. Summary

Chapter 5. Hemocompatibility Assessment of 3C-SiC for Cardiovascular Applications

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Biocompatibility of Materials

5.3. Platelet Adhesion and Activation

5.4. Protein Adsorption to Surfaces

5.5. Microvascular Endothelial Cell Proliferation on Semiconductor Substrates

5.6. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Biocompatibility of SiC for Neurological Applications

6.1. Introduction

6.2. The Basic Central Nervous System

6.3. In Vitro Foreign Material and Living Cell Surface Interaction

6.4. Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons on 3C-SiC

6.5. In Vivo Neuronal Tissue Reaction to Cubic Silicon Carbide

6.6. “Michigan Probe” Style 3C-SiC Biocompatibility Investigation Device

6.7. Conclusion

Chapter 7. SiC for Brain–Machine Interface (BMI)

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Theory of Bioelectricity

7.3. The Brain–Machine Interface

7.4. Implantable Neural Prosthetics and the Immune System Interaction

7.5. Silicon Carbide Neural Activation Device (SiC-NAD)

7.6. Neural Interface Signal Production, Reception and Processing

7.7. Conclusion

Chapter 8. Porous SiC Microdialysis Technology

8.1. Introduction to Microdialysis Principles

8.2. Membrane Types

8.3. Summary

Chapter 9. Biocompatible Sol–Gel Based Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Nano-porous SiC

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Porous SiC

9.3. Results and Discussion

9.4. Conclusion

Chapter 10. Silicon Carbide BioMEMS

10.1. Introduction

10.2. 6H-SiC-Based BioMEMS

10.3. 3C-SiC-Based BioMEMS

10.4. Amorphous-SiC-Based BioMEMS

10.5. Conclusions

Chapter 11. SiC as a Biocompatible Marker for Cell Labeling

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Synthesis

11.3. Structural and Chemical Properties of SiC Nanoparticles

11.4. Optical Properties

11.5. Biocompatible Cell Labeling

11.6. Cancer Therapy

11.7. Chapter Summary

Chapter 12. Carbon Based Materials on SiC for Advanced Biomedical Applications

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Graphene

12.3. Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films (PPF)

12.4. Graphene and Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films for Biomedical Devices

12.5. Biocompatibility of Epitaxial Graphene on SiC and PPF

12.6. Conclusions


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© Elsevier Science 2012
28th November 2011
Elsevier Science
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About the Editor

Stephen Saddow

Dr. Saddow’s research interests are to develop wide-bandgap semiconductor materials for high-field and high-power device applications. His most recent work has focused on the use of SiC for Bio, Nano and MEMS applications. He is a visiting professor in Sicily where he conducts analysis and growth studies of 3C-SiC on Si substrates at the Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi - Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (IMM-CNR), Catania, Sicily (IT). His ultimate research objective is to develop smart sensors for harsh environments and biomedical applications based on wide band gap semiconductor materials. He is a senior member of the IEEE and has over 100 publications on SiC materials and devices, with nearly half in archived journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Dept. of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA

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