Silicon Carbide Biotechnology

Silicon Carbide Biotechnology

A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications

1st Edition - November 14, 2011

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  • Editor: Stephen Saddow
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859075

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Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor biocompatible material that has the potential to advance advanced biomedical applications. SiC devices offer higher power densities and lower energy losses, enabling lighter, more compact and higher efficiency products for biocompatible and long-term in vivo applications ranging from heart stent coatings and bone implant scaffolds to neurological implants and sensors. The main problem facing the medical community today is the lack of biocompatible materials that are also capable of electronic operation. Such devices are currently implemented using silicon technology, which either has to be hermetically sealed so it cannot interact with the body or the material is only stable in vivo for short periods of time. For long term use (permanent implanted devices such as glucose sensors, brain-machine-interface devices, smart bone and organ implants) a more robust material that the body does not recognize and reject as a foreign (i.e., not organic) material is needed. Silicon Carbide has been proven to be just such a material and will open up a whole new host of fields by allowing the development of advanced biomedical devices never before possible for long-term use in vivo. This book not only provides the materials and biomedical engineering communities with a seminal reference book on SiC that they can use to further develop the technology, it also provides a technology resource for medical doctors and practitioners who are hungry to identify and implement advanced engineering solutions to their everyday medical problems that currently lack long term, cost effective solutions.

Key Features

  • Discusses Silicon Carbide biomedical materials and technology in terms of their properties, processing, characterization, and application, in one book, from leading professionals and scientists
  • Critical assesses existing literature, patents and FDA approvals for clinical trials, enabling the rapid assimilation of important data from the current disparate sources and promoting the transition from technology research and development to clinical trials
  • Explores long-term use and applications in vivo in devices and applications with advanced sensing and semiconducting properties, pointing to new product devekipment particularly within brain trauma, bone implants, sub-cutaneous sensors and advanced kidney dialysis devices


Biomedical engineers, biochemists, device professionals and related medical specialists searching for a robust biomedical option for implantation with semiconductor effects in terms of selection of SiC materials / sensors / devices / implants for either further research and development and for further product exploitation.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Silicon Carbide Materials for Biomedical Applications

    1.1. Introduction

    1.2. Silicon Carbide—Materials Overview

    1.3. Silicon Carbide Material Growth and Processing

    1.4. Silicon Carbide as a Biomedical Material

    1.5. Summary

    Chapter 2. SiC Films and Coatings

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. SiC CVD Introduction

    2.3. Amorphous Silicon Carbide, a Sic

    2.4. Polycrystalline SiC Films

    2.5. Single-Crystalline SiC Films

    2.6. 3C-SiC Heteroepitaxial Growth on Novel Substrates

    2.7. Summary

    Chapter 3. Multifunctional SiC Surfaces

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Surface Terminations

    3.3. Organic Surface Modification via Self-Assembly Techniques

    3.4. Polymer Brushes

    3.5. Increased Cell Proliferation on SiC-Modified Surfaces

    3.6. Conclusion

    Chapter 4. SiC In Vitro Biocompatibility

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Cell Cultures on Single-Crystal SiC Surfaces

    4.3. Influence of Surface Properties on Cell Adhesion and Proliferation

    4.4. Cleaning of SiC Surfaces for Bioapplications: RCA versus Piranha

    4.5. Summary

    Chapter 5. Hemocompatibility Assessment of 3C-SiC for Cardiovascular Applications

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Biocompatibility of Materials

    5.3. Platelet Adhesion and Activation

    5.4. Protein Adsorption to Surfaces

    5.5. Microvascular Endothelial Cell Proliferation on Semiconductor Substrates

    5.6. Conclusion

    Chapter 6. Biocompatibility of SiC for Neurological Applications

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. The Basic Central Nervous System

    6.3. In Vitro Foreign Material and Living Cell Surface Interaction

    6.4. Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons on 3C-SiC

    6.5. In Vivo Neuronal Tissue Reaction to Cubic Silicon Carbide

    6.6. “Michigan Probe” Style 3C-SiC Biocompatibility Investigation Device

    6.7. Conclusion

    Chapter 7. SiC for Brain–Machine Interface (BMI)

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Theory of Bioelectricity

    7.3. The Brain–Machine Interface

    7.4. Implantable Neural Prosthetics and the Immune System Interaction

    7.5. Silicon Carbide Neural Activation Device (SiC-NAD)

    7.6. Neural Interface Signal Production, Reception and Processing

    7.7. Conclusion

    Chapter 8. Porous SiC Microdialysis Technology

    8.1. Introduction to Microdialysis Principles

    8.2. Membrane Types

    8.3. Summary

    Chapter 9. Biocompatible Sol–Gel Based Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Nano-porous SiC

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Porous SiC

    9.3. Results and Discussion

    9.4. Conclusion

    Chapter 10. Silicon Carbide BioMEMS

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. 6H-SiC-Based BioMEMS

    10.3. 3C-SiC-Based BioMEMS

    10.4. Amorphous-SiC-Based BioMEMS

    10.5. Conclusions

    Chapter 11. SiC as a Biocompatible Marker for Cell Labeling

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Synthesis

    11.3. Structural and Chemical Properties of SiC Nanoparticles

    11.4. Optical Properties

    11.5. Biocompatible Cell Labeling

    11.6. Cancer Therapy

    11.7. Chapter Summary

    Chapter 12. Carbon Based Materials on SiC for Advanced Biomedical Applications

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Graphene

    12.3. Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films (PPF)

    12.4. Graphene and Pyrolyzed Photoresist Films for Biomedical Devices

    12.5. Biocompatibility of Epitaxial Graphene on SiC and PPF

    12.6. Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 495
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2011
  • Published: November 14, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123859075

About the Editor

Stephen Saddow

Dr. Stephen E. Saddow is currently a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Medical Engineering, both departments in the College of Engineering at the University of South Florida (USF), Tampa. In 2020, he was appointed as a visiting researcher in the Molecular Imaging Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD to facilitate the development of SiC-based nanoparticles to treat deep tissue cancer using near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT). He is also a visiting scientist in the Elettra synchrotron light source in Trieste, Italy (BEAR beamline). He was elected Fellow of the AIMBE and is a senior member of both the IEEE and National Academy of Inventors. His group has demonstrated the compatibility of SiC and graphene to numerous cell lines in vitro and to the central nervous system of wild-type mice to cubic SiC (3C-SiC) in vivo. Studies include the MRI compatibility of 3C-SiC for neural probe applications as well as the ability to noninvasively detect changes in patient glucose levels without the need of needles that require frequent swap-out. The hemocompatibility of 3C-SiC has been established leading to the demonstration that 3C-SiC passed all phases of ISO-10993 testing, which is necessary to secure FDA approval for human clinical trials. He holds several patents relating to SiC biomedical devices, such as implantable glucose sensors and neural implants. He has more than 150 publications on SiC materials and devices and has edited two books on this topic: 'Silicon Carbide Biotechnology: A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications' (Elsevier, 2012) and 'Silicon Carbide Biotechnology: A Biocompatible Semiconductor for Advanced Biomedical Devices and Applications, Second Edition' (Elsevier, 2016). His research interests include the development of advanced biomedical devices for human healthcare applications where he works at the nexus of material and biological science to engineer long-term, in vivo medical devices based on silicon carbide and its derivatives.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

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