Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

7th Edition - September 5, 2012

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  • Authors: Bryan Barrass, Capt D R Derrett
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080970943
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780080970936

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Ship Stability for Masters and Mates explores all aspects of ship stability and ship strength, squat, and interaction and trim, as well as materials stresses and forces. Organized into 56 chapters, the book looks at the relationship between ship stability and ship motion, with emphasis on group weights in a ship. It also explains how TPCs are calculated for a range of drafts extending beyond the light and loaded drafts, along with form coefficients, including the coefficient of fineness of the waterplane area.The book explains how to perform KB, BM, and KM calculations and make graphics on metacentric diagrams. It considers large-angle stability, the effect of beam and freeboard on stability, and hydrostatic curves and values for vessels that are initially on even keel. The reader is also introduced to free-surface effects of slack tanks with divisional bulkheads, how side winds affect ship stability, and the correlation between freeboard and stability curves. Other chapters focus on timber ship freeboard marks, procedures and calculations for drydocking and stability, and ship squat in open water and in confined channels. The book also includes extracts from the 1998 Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations Number MSN 1752(M).This book is intended for students seeking to obtain Transport Certificates of Competency for Deck Officers and Engineering Officers and STCW equivalent International qualifications, as well as Chief Mates and Officers on Watch (Officers in Charge) on board merchant ships and other maritime personnel, port authorities, marine consultants, nautical study lecturers, and marine superintendents.

Key Features

  • Updated throughout to include new shipping industry developments and regulations, with 9 new chapters, the latest ship stability datasheets, and sample exam questions
  • Provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of ship stability and ship strength, squat, interaction and trim, materials stresses and forces
  • Concepts are supported with numerous worked examples, clear diagrams, graphs and equations to assist with understanding and application of this critical subject


Practising marine engineers, naval architects and ship operations personnel; Consulting marine engineers; Marine engineering students on courses in ship stability and related areas; Students on professional certification / vocational courses covering the above

Table of Contents

  • Dedication





    PART I: Linking Ship Stability and Ship Motions

    Chapter 1. Group Weights, Water Draft, Air Draft, and Density

    Group Weights in a Ship

    Effect of Change of Density when the Displacement is Constant

    Effect of Density on Displacement when the Draft is Constant

    Chapter 2. Transverse Statical Stability



    The Metacenter


    Correcting Unstable and Neutral Equilibrium

    Stiff and Tender Ships

    Negative GM and Angle of Loll

    The GM Value

    Chapter 3. Effect of Decreasing Free Surface on Stability

    Correcting an Angle of Loll

    Chapter 4. TPC and Displacement Curves


    TPC Curves

    Displacement Curves

    Chapter 5. Form Coefficients

    The Coefficient of Fineness of the Waterplane Area (Cw)

    The Block Coefficient of Fineness of Displacement (Cb)

    The Midships Coefficient (Cm)

    The Prismatic Coefficient (Cp)

    Chapter 6. Discussion on LCB Position Relative to Amidships

    Observations Regarding Figure 6.1

    Formulae Used for Figure 6.1

    Observations and Formulae Regarding Figure 6.2

    Observations and Formulae Regarding Figure 6.3

    Chapter 7. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Areas and Centroids

    Areas and Volumes

    Areas of Waterplanes and Similar Figures Using Extensions of Simpson’s Rules

    Volumes of Ship Shapes and Similar Figures

    Appendages and Intermediate Ordinates

    Areas and Volumes Having an Awkward Number of Ordinates

    Centroids and Centers of Gravity


    Chapter 8. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Moments of Inertia

    The Theorem of Parallel Axes


    Chapter 9. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Centers of Pressure on Transverse Bulkheads

    Centers of Pressure by Simpson’s Rules


    Chapter 10. KB, BM, and KM Calculations and Graphics on Metacentric Diagrams

    To Find KB

    To Find Transverse BM

    Metacentric Diagrams

    Chapter 11. Final KG Plus 20 Reasons for Rise in KG

    Twenty Reasons for a Rise in G

    Chapter 12. Angle of List Considerations – Text, Calculations, and Graphics


    Chapter 13. Angle of Heel – Effects of Suspended Weights



    Chapter 14. Angle of List Due to Bilging of Side Compartments


    Chapter 15. Heel Due to Turning

    Chapter 16. Angle of Loll

    To Calculate the Angle of Loll

    Angle of List

    Angle of Loll

    Chapter 17. Moments of Statical Stability

    The Moment of Statical Stability at a Small Angle of Heel

    The Moment of Statical Stability at a Large Angle of Heel

    Chapter 18. Aspects of Trim – The Main Factors Involved

    The Moment to Change Trim 1 cm (MCT 1 cm or MCTC)

    To Find the Change of Draft Forward and Aft Due to Change of Trim

    The Effect of Shifting Weights Already on Board

    Chapter 19. Trim Calculations – Changing Conditions of Loading

    The Effect of Loading, Discharging, and Moving Weights

    Using Trim to Find the Position of the Center of Flotation

    Chapter 20. Trim Calculations – Satisfying Prescribed Requirements for End Drafts

    Loading a Weight to Keep the After Draft Constant

    Loading a Weight to Produce a Required Draft

    Using Change of Trim to Find the Longitudinal Metacentric Height (GML)

    Which Way Will the Ship Trim?


    Chapter 21. Large-Angle Stability Considerations – GZ and KN Cross Curves of Stability

    Cross Curves of Stability

    Statical Stability Curves

    Chapter 22. Effects of Beam and Freeboard on Stability

    The Effect of Increasing the Beam

    The Effect of Increasing the Freeboard


    Chapter 23. Dynamical Stability Relating to Statical Stability Curves

    Chapter 24. Changes in Statical Stability Relating to Wave Profiles – Loss of Quasi-Static Stability

    Chapter 25. Hydrostatic Curves and Values for Vessels Initially on Even Keel

    Hydrostatic Curves

    Using the Hydrostatic Curves

    Chapter 26. Hydrostatic Curves and Values for Vessels Initially Having Trim by the Bow or by the Stern

    Chapter 27. Increase in Draft Due to List

    Box-Shaped Vessels

    Vessels Having a Rise of Floor

    Chapter 28. Combined List and Trim

    Chapter 29. Calculating Free-Surface Effects of Slack Tanks with Divisional Bulkheads

    Chapter 30. Bilging Effects of Stability – Permeability Effects

    Bilging Amidships Compartments

    Bilging End Compartments

    Effect of Bilging on Stability


    Chapter 31. Effects of Side Winds on Ship Stability

    Chapter 32. Icing Allowances Plus Effects on Trim and Stability

    Chapter 33. The Sectional Area Curve



    Chapter 34. FL and PL Curves Plus Type A and Type B Vessels


    Summary of Procedure Steps

    Chapter 35. Load Lines and Freeboard Marks

    The Link

    Historical Note


    Freeboards of Oil Tankers and General Cargo Ships

    Tabulated Freeboard Values: Procedure

    The Corrections in Detail

    Summary Statement

    The Freeboard Marks

    Chapter 36. Timber Ship Freeboard Marks

    Chapter 37. IMO Grain Rules for Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk

    Chapter 38. True Mean Draft


    Effect of Hog and Sag on Draft Amidships

    Chapter 39. Inclining Experiment (Stability Test) Plus Fluctuations in a Ship’s Lightweight


    Fluctuations in a Ship’s Lightweight Over a Period of Time

    Chapter 40. The Calibration Book Plus Soundings and Ullages

    Methods for Reading Soundings and Ullages

    Adjustments for Angle of Heel and Trim

    Adjustments for Temperature

    Chapter 41. Drydocking and Stability – Procedures and Calculations

    Method (a)

    Method (b)

    The Virtual Loss of GM After Taking the Blocks Overall

    Note to Students

    Chapter 42. Ship Squat in Open Water and in Confined Channels

    What Exactly is Ship Squat?

    Recent Ship Groundings

    What Are the Factors Governing Ship Squat?

    Ship Squat for Ships with Static Trim

    Fitting a Trench

    Ship Squat in Wide and Narrow Rivers

    Chapter 43. Turning Circle Diameter (TCD) Values for Vessels in Shallow Waters


    Updates of 1987 and 2002

    Some Observations




    Chapter 44. Interaction Effects, Including Two Case Studies

    What Exactly is Interaction?


    A Collision Due to Interaction? An Example of Directional Stability

    Chapter 45. Rolling, Pitching, and Heaving Motions

    Pitching Motions

    Heaving Motions

    Chapter 46. Synchronous Rolling and Parametric Rolling of Ships

    Synchronous Rolling of Ships

    Parametric Rolling of Ships

    Chapter 47. Effects of Change of Density on a Ship’s Draft and Trim

    Chapter 48. The Deadweight Scale

    Chapter 49. The Trim and Stability Book


    Chapter 50. Simplified Stability Information

    Maximum Permissible Deadweight Moment Diagram

    Chapter 51. The Stability Pro-Forma

    Chapter 52. Looking Forward into the Next Decade

    Qflex and Qmax LNG Vessels

    Triple ‘E’ Container Ships

    The Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) Project in NW Australia

    PART II: Endnotes

    Chapter 53. Draft Surveys


    Chapter 54. Quality Control – Plus the Work of Ship Surveyors

    Chapter 55. Extracts from the 1998 Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations Number MSN 1752(M)

    Chapter 56. Keeping Up to Date

    PART III: Appendices

    APPENDIX I: Summary of Stability Formulae1

    APPENDIX II: SQA/MCA 2004 Syllabuses for Masters and Mates

    APPENDIX III: Specimen Exam Questions with Marking Scheme

    APPENDIX IV: 100 Revision One-Liners

    APPENDIX V: How to Pass Exams in Maritime Studies

    APPENDIX VI: Ship Stability Data Sheets

    APPENDIX VII: Capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise – A Journalistic Review


    Reasons Why the Herald of Free Enterprise Capsized

    Suggested Changes in Ship Construction and Operation after the Herald of Free Enterprise Capsize



    Answers to Exercises

    Exercise 1

    Exercise 2

    Exercise 3

    Exercise 4

    Exercise 5

    Exercise 7

    Exercise 8

    Exercise 9

    Exercise 10

    Exercise 11

    Exercise 12

    Exercise 13

    Exercise 14

    Exercise 15

    Exercise 16

    Exercise 17

    Exercise 18

    Exercise 19

    Exercise 20

    Exercise 21

    Exercise 23

    Exercise 25

    Exercise 27

    Exercise 28

    Exercise 29

    Exercise 30

    Exercise 31

    Exercise 32

    Exercise 34

    Exercise 35

    Exercise 36

    Exercise 37

    Exercise 38

    Exercise 39

    Exercise 40

    Exercise 41

    Exercise 42

    Exercise 43

    Exercise 44

    Exercise 45

    Exercise 46

    Exercise 47

    Exercise 50

    Exercise 51

    Exercise 55

    General Particulars of Selected Merchant Ships, Delivered 2007–2011

    Nomenclature of Ship Terms


Product details

  • No. of pages: 584
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: September 5, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080970943
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780080970936

About the Authors

Bryan Barrass

Dr Bryan Barrass worked as a Ship Draughtsman for 11 years at Swan Hunters Shipyard in Wallsend. In 1963, he then became a Lecturer in Naval Architecture in Sunderland. From 1967 to 1993, he worked at Liverpool John Moores University, lecturing to Maritime Degree students, Masters, Mates, and Marine Engineers.

In 1993 he retired from full-time work. He became a visiting Lecturer and has written seven books involving Ship Stability, Ship Design & Ship Performance and Ship Squat & Interaction. His interest in Ship Squat began in April 1972, starting on research for his Ph.D. degree.

He has worked with many national & international Port Authorities. They include the PLA, Milford Haven PA, Liverpool PA, Humberside PA, Tyne PA, Truro PA, Newhaven PA, Bordeaux PA, Klaipeda PA, Nantes PA and Hamburg PA.

Dr Barrass has supplied Ship Squat and Interaction information to 22 countries worldwide. He has lectured at a great number of UK Universities and has advised many Ship-owners on the above listed Specialist topics.

Affiliations and Expertise

International maritime consultant and lecturer in marine technology at Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Capt D R Derrett

Affiliations and Expertise

Formerly Head of Navigation Department at Hull Nautical College, UK

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