Ship Stability for Masters and Mates - 7th Edition - ISBN: 9780080970936, 9780080970943

Ship Stability for Masters and Mates

7th Edition

Authors: Bryan Barrass Capt D R Derrett
Paperback ISBN: 9780080970936
eBook ISBN: 9780080970943
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 5th September 2012
Page Count: 584
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Ship Stability for Masters and Mates explores all aspects of ship stability and ship strength, squat, and interaction and trim, as well as materials stresses and forces. Organized into 56 chapters, the book looks at the relationship between ship stability and ship motion, with emphasis on group weights in a ship. It also explains how TPCs are calculated for a range of drafts extending beyond the light and loaded drafts, along with form coefficients, including the coefficient of fineness of the waterplane area. The book explains how to perform KB, BM, and KM calculations and make graphics on metacentric diagrams. It considers large-angle stability, the effect of beam and freeboard on stability, and hydrostatic curves and values for vessels that are initially on even keel. The reader is also introduced to free-surface effects of slack tanks with divisional bulkheads, how side winds affect ship stability, and the correlation between freeboard and stability curves. Other chapters focus on timber ship freeboard marks, procedures and calculations for drydocking and stability, and ship squat in open water and in confined channels. The book also includes extracts from the 1998 Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations Number MSN 1752(M). This book is intended for students seeking to obtain Transport Certificates of Competency for Deck Officers and Engineering Officers and STCW equivalent International qualifications, as well as Chief Mates and Officers on Watch (Officers in Charge) on board merchant ships and other maritime personnel, port authorities, marine consultants, nautical study lecturers, and marine superintendents.

Key Features

  • Updated throughout to include new shipping industry developments and regulations, with 9 new chapters, the latest ship stability datasheets, and sample exam questions
  • Provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of ship stability and ship strength, squat, interaction and trim, materials stresses and forces
  • Concepts are supported with numerous worked examples, clear diagrams, graphs and equations to assist with understanding and application of this critical subject


Practising marine engineers, naval architects and ship operations personnel; Consulting marine engineers; Marine engineering students on courses in ship stability and related areas; Students on professional certification / vocational courses covering the above.

Table of Contents






PART I: Linking Ship Stability and Ship Motions

Chapter 1. Group Weights, Water Draft, Air Draft, and Density

Group Weights in a Ship

Effect of Change of Density when the Displacement is Constant

Effect of Density on Displacement when the Draft is Constant

Chapter 2. Transverse Statical Stability



The Metacenter


Correcting Unstable and Neutral Equilibrium

Stiff and Tender Ships

Negative GM and Angle of Loll

The GM Value

Chapter 3. Effect of Decreasing Free Surface on Stability

Correcting an Angle of Loll

Chapter 4. TPC and Displacement Curves


TPC Curves

Displacement Curves

Chapter 5. Form Coefficients

The Coefficient of Fineness of the Waterplane Area (Cw)

The Block Coefficient of Fineness of Displacement (Cb)

The Midships Coefficient (Cm)

The Prismatic Coefficient (Cp)

Chapter 6. Discussion on LCB Position Relative to Amidships

Observations Regarding Figure 6.1

Formulae Used for Figure 6.1

Observations and Formulae Regarding Figure 6.2

Observations and Formulae Regarding Figure 6.3

Chapter 7. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Areas and Centroids

Areas and Volumes

Areas of Waterplanes and Similar Figures Using Extensions of Simpson’s Rules

Volumes of Ship Shapes and Similar Figures

Appendages and Intermediate Ordinates

Areas and Volumes Having an Awkward Number of Ordinates

Centroids and Centers of Gravity


Chapter 8. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Moments of Inertia

The Theorem of Parallel Axes


Chapter 9. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Centers of Pressure on Transverse Bulkheads

Centers of Pressure by Simpson’s Rules


Chapter 10. KB, BM, and KM Calculations and Graphics on Metacentric Diagrams

To Find KB

To Find Transverse BM

Metacentric Diagrams

Chapter 11. Final KG Plus 20 Reasons for Rise in KG

Twenty Reasons for a Rise in G

Chapter 12. Angle of List Considerations – Text, Calculations, and Graphics


Chapter 13. Angle of Heel – Effects of Suspended Weights



Chapter 14. Angle of List Due to Bilging of Side Compartments


Chapter 15. Heel Due to Turning

Chapter 16. Angle of Loll

To Calculate the Angle of Loll

Angle of List

Angle of Loll

Chapter 17. Moments of Statical Stability

The Moment of Statical Stability at a Small Angle of Heel

The Moment of Statical Stability at a Large Angle of Heel

Chapter 18. Aspects of Trim – The Main Factors Involved

The Moment to Change Trim 1 cm (MCT 1 cm or MCTC)

To Find the Change of Draft Forward and Aft Due to Change of Trim

The Effect of Shifting Weights Already on Board

Chapter 19. Trim Calculations – Changing Conditions of Loading

The Effect of Loading, Discharging, and Moving Weights

Using Trim to Find the Position of the Center of Flotation

Chapter 20. Trim Calculations – Satisfying Prescribed Requirements for End Drafts

Loading a Weight to Keep the After Draft Constant

Loading a Weight to Produce a Required Draft

Using Change of Trim to Find the Longitudinal Metacentric Height (GML)

Which Way Will the Ship Trim?


Chapter 21. Large-Angle Stability Considerations – GZ and KN Cross Curves of Stability

Cross Curves of Stability

Statical Stability Curves

Chapter 22. Effects of Beam and Freeboard on Stability

The Effect of Increasing the Beam

The Effect of Increasing the Freeboard


Chapter 23. Dynamical Stability Relating to Statical Stability Curves

Chapter 24. Changes in Statical Stability Relating to Wave Profiles – Loss of Quasi-Static Stability

Chapter 25. Hydrostatic Curves and Values for Vessels Initially on Even Keel

Hydrostatic Curves

Using the Hydrostatic Curves

Chapter 26. Hydrostatic Curves and Values for Vessels Initially Having Trim by the Bow or by the Stern

Chapter 27. Increase in Draft Due to List

Box-Shaped Vessels

Vessels Having a Rise of Floor

Chapter 28. Combined List and Trim

Chapter 29. Calculating Free-Surface Effects of Slack Tanks with Divisional Bulkheads

Chapter 30. Bilging Effects of Stability – Permeability Effects

Bilging Amidships Compartments

Bilging End Compartments

Effect of Bilging on Stability


Chapter 31. Effects of Side Winds on Ship Stability

Chapter 32. Icing Allowances Plus Effects on Trim and Stability

Chapter 33. The Sectional Area Curve



Chapter 34. FL and PL Curves Plus Type A and Type B Vessels


Summary of Procedure Steps

Chapter 35. Load Lines and Freeboard Marks

The Link

Historical Note


Freeboards of Oil Tankers and General Cargo Ships

Tabulated Freeboard Values: Procedure

The Corrections in Detail

Summary Statement

The Freeboard Marks

Chapter 36. Timber Ship Freeboard Marks

Chapter 37. IMO Grain Rules for Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk

Chapter 38. True Mean Draft


Effect of Hog and Sag on Draft Amidships

Chapter 39. Inclining Experiment (Stability Test) Plus Fluctuations in a Ship’s Lightweight


Fluctuations in a Ship’s Lightweight Over a Period of Time

Chapter 40. The Calibration Book Plus Soundings and Ullages

Methods for Reading Soundings and Ullages

Adjustments for Angle of Heel and Trim

Adjustments for Temperature

Chapter 41. Drydocking and Stability – Procedures and Calculations

Method (a)

Method (b)

The Virtual Loss of GM After Taking the Blocks Overall

Note to Students

Chapter 42. Ship Squat in Open Water and in Confined Channels

What Exactly is Ship Squat?

Recent Ship Groundings

What Are the Factors Governing Ship Squat?

Ship Squat for Ships with Static Trim

Fitting a Trench

Ship Squat in Wide and Narrow Rivers

Chapter 43. Turning Circle Diameter (TCD) Values for Vessels in Shallow Waters


Updates of 1987 and 2002

Some Observations




Chapter 44. Interaction Effects, Including Two Case Studies

What Exactly is Interaction?


A Collision Due to Interaction? An Example of Directional Stability

Chapter 45. Rolling, Pitching, and Heaving Motions

Pitching Motions

Heaving Motions

Chapter 46. Synchronous Rolling and Parametric Rolling of Ships

Synchronous Rolling of Ships

Parametric Rolling of Ships

Chapter 47. Effects of Change of Density on a Ship’s Draft and Trim

Chapter 48. The Deadweight Scale

Chapter 49. The Trim and Stability Book


Chapter 50. Simplified Stability Information

Maximum Permissible Deadweight Moment Diagram

Chapter 51. The Stability Pro-Forma

Chapter 52. Looking Forward into the Next Decade

Qflex and Qmax LNG Vessels

Triple ‘E’ Container Ships

The Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) Project in NW Australia

PART II: Endnotes

Chapter 53. Draft Surveys


Chapter 54. Quality Control – Plus the Work of Ship Surveyors

Chapter 55. Extracts from the 1998 Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations Number MSN 1752(M)

Chapter 56. Keeping Up to Date

PART III: Appendices

APPENDIX I: Summary of Stability Formulae1

APPENDIX II: SQA/MCA 2004 Syllabuses for Masters and Mates

APPENDIX III: Specimen Exam Questions with Marking Scheme

APPENDIX IV: 100 Revision One-Liners

APPENDIX V: How to Pass Exams in Maritime Studies

APPENDIX VI: Ship Stability Data Sheets

APPENDIX VII: Capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise – A Journalistic Review


Reasons Why the Herald of Free Enterprise Capsized

Suggested Changes in Ship Construction and Operation after the Herald of Free Enterprise Capsize



Answers to Exercises

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

Exercise 5

Exercise 7

Exercise 8

Exercise 9

Exercise 10

Exercise 11

Exercise 12

Exercise 13

Exercise 14

Exercise 15

Exercise 16

Exercise 17

Exercise 18

Exercise 19

Exercise 20

Exercise 21

Exercise 23

Exercise 25

Exercise 27

Exercise 28

Exercise 29

Exercise 30

Exercise 31

Exercise 32

Exercise 34

Exercise 35

Exercise 36

Exercise 37

Exercise 38

Exercise 39

Exercise 40

Exercise 41

Exercise 42

Exercise 43

Exercise 44

Exercise 45

Exercise 46

Exercise 47

Exercise 50

Exercise 51

Exercise 55

General Particulars of Selected Merchant Ships, Delivered 2007–2011

Nomenclature of Ship Terms



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About the Author

Bryan Barrass

Dr Bryan Barrass worked as a Ship Draughtsman for 11 years at Swan Hunters Shipyard in Wallsend. In 1963, he then became a Lecturer in Naval Architecture in Sunderland. From 1967 to 1993, he worked at Liverpool John Moores University, lecturing to Maritime Degree students, Masters, Mates, and Marine Engineers.

In 1993 he retired from full-time work. He became a visiting Lecturer and has written seven books involving Ship Stability, Ship Design & Ship Performance and Ship Squat & Interaction. His interest in Ship Squat began in April 1972, starting on research for his Ph.D. degree.

He has worked with many national & international Port Authorities. They include the PLA, Milford Haven PA, Liverpool PA, Humberside PA, Tyne PA, Truro PA, Newhaven PA, Bordeaux PA, Klaipeda PA, Nantes PA and Hamburg PA.

Dr Barrass has supplied Ship Squat and Interaction information to 22 countries worldwide. He has lectured at a great number of UK Universities and has advised many Ship-owners on the above listed Specialist topics.

Affiliations and Expertise

International maritime consultant and lecturer in marine technology at Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Capt D R Derrett

Affiliations and Expertise

Formerly Head of Navigation Department at Hull Nautical College, UK


"British specialists in marine technology (Barrass) and navigation (Derrett) provide a resource for students studying for their Transport Certificates of Competency for Deck Officers and Engineering Officers and STCW equivalent international qualification. Primarily for chief mates and officers on watch on board merchant ships, it focuses on linking ship stability with ship motions."--Reference & Research Book News, October 2013
"…the book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject with full supporting data. It is well written with clear illustrations. It can be thoroughly recommended to those at whom it is aimed and many others associated with the operation of ships will benefit from reading it."--The Naval Architect, January 2013