Shield Construction Techniques in Tunneling

Shield Construction Techniques in Tunneling

1st Edition - February 5, 2021

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  • Authors: Kui Chen, Jiangka Wang, Shengjun Jiao
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128201275
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128201282

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Shield Construction Techniques in Tunnelling presents the latest on this fast, environmentally-friendly and relatively safe construction technique, reflecting on its technical risks and challenges as seen in China. Sections introduce the type of shields, the history of the technique, shielding principles, selection, management, the latest techniques in operation, consider engineering cases, discuss construction in gravel, soft-soil, composite, and rock strata, and present video clips of construction that are accessible through QR codes embedded in the text. The book combines theory and practical experience, giving the reader unique insights into shield equipment and construction techniques. The shield tunneling technique is being used very widely, particularly in China, which is building urban-rail transit systems at an unparalleled scale and speed. The use of tunneling-shields provides a fast, relatively-safe, and ecologically-friendly method for the construction of tunnels. However, a number of incidents have shown the risks involved in tunnelling through geologically complex areas.

Key Features

  • Gives the principles and practice of shield construction techniques, including shield selection and operation
  • Demonstrates the latest technologies in shield construction that can be applied in practice
  • Reflects on the technical risks and challenges of shield construction, based on extensive use of the technique for tunnel construction in China
  • Discusses challenges in construction in gravel, soft-soil, composite and rock strata
  • Provides engineers with applicable insights into shield equipment and construction techniques


Engineers working in shield design, tunnel construction, tunnel engineering management; those researching and teaching tunnel construction techniques. Researchers and graduate students working in civil engineering, particularly on tunnel construction; Those interested in civil engineering projects in China and the wider region

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Introduction to shield machines
    1.1 Shield machine and its working principles
    1.2 Classification of shield machine
    1.2.1 Classifications according to excavation face
    1.2.2 Classifications according to boring diameter
    1.2.3 Classifications according to the supporting method of excavation face
    1.2.4 Classification according to the structure between excavation face and the bulkhead of working chamber
    1.3 Introduction of typical shield machines
    1.3.1 Open-type shield machine
    1.3.2 Compressed air shield
    1.3.3 Slurry shield
    1.3.4 Earth pressure balanced shield
    1.3.5 Composited shield machine
    1.3.6 Earth pressure balanced shield machine for composited ground

    Chapter 2: Development and applications of shield machines
    2.1 The origin and development of shield machines
    2.1.1 The origin of shield machines
    2.1.2 The development of circular shield machines
    2.1.3 The development of slurry shields
    2.1.4 The usage of compressed air
    2.1.5 The development of mechanized shield machines
    2.1.6 The development of the first German shield machine
    2.1.7 The development and application of slurry shield machines
    2.1.8 The development of earth pressure balanced shields
    2.1.9 The development of composited shield machines
    2.2 The development and application of shield machines in China
    2.2.1 The development and application of hand-dug shield machines
    2.2.2 The development and application of grid extrusion shield machines
    2.2.3 The development and application of blade shield machines
    2.2.4 The introduction of shield machines in China
    2.2.5 The “863” program of China for EPB shield machines
    2.2.6 Characteristics of shield machine application in China
    2.2.7 The gap with foreign countries
    2.3 Industrial model of shield machine
    2.4 The development tendency of shield machines
    2.4.1 Microminiaturization and superupsizing
    2.4.2 The variety of shield types and shapes
    2.4.3 High degree of automation
    2.4.4 High adaptability
    2.5 New technology of shielded method construction
    2.5.1 Diameter-expanding shielded construction method
    2.5.2 Spherical shielded construction method
    2.5.3 Multicircle shielded construction method
    2.5.4 H&V shielded construction method
    2.5.5 Variant-section shielded construction method
    2.5.6 Eccentric multishaft shielded construction method
    2.5.7 Mechanical shield docking technology (MSD method)
    2.5.8 Underwater civil docking technology of shield machines
    2.5.9 Compressed air intervention technology
    2.6 The development directions of shield machine technology
    2.6.1 The serialization of earth pressure balanced shield
    2.6.2 Full popularization and application of composited shields
    2.6.3 The development and applications of superlarge diameter slurry shields
    2.6.4 Development and application of multifunctional dual-mode shield machines
    2.7 Shield machine market prospects
    2.7.1 The characteristics of the Chinese shield machine market
    2.7.2 Existing problems in the development of the shield machine industry
    2.7.3 The analysis of shield machine market prospects

    Chapter 3: Introduction to shield construction method
    3.1 The main methods of tunnel construction
    3.2 Basic concept of shield construction method
    3.3 The main technical features of shield method
    3.4 The advantages and disadvantages of shield method
    3.5 Adaptation range of shield method
    3.5.1 The applicability to the geologic and environmental conditions
    3.5.2 Application range of large diameter shield machines
    3.5.3 Application range of medium diameter shield machines
    3.5.4 Application range of small diameter shields
    3.6 The development history of shield method tunnel abroad
    3.7 The development history of shield method tunnel in China
    3.7.1 The early shield machine in China
    3.7.2 The development and application of shield method technology in the 1960 and 1970s
    3.7.3 The progress and development of shield method technology in the 1980s
    3.7.4 The development of shield method technology in the 1990s
    3.8 Introduction of typical shield construction method
    3.8.1 Slurry shield construction method
    3.8.2 EPB shield construction method
    3.8.3 Special shield construction method

    Chapter 4: Shield machine type selection
    4.1 Overview
    4.1.1 The “types” of shield machines
    4.1.2 The “machine types” of shield machines
    4.1.3 “Operation mode” of shield machine
    4.1.4 “Forms” of shield machine
    4.2 Principles of shield machine type selection
    4.3 The basis of shield machine type selection
    4.4 Main steps of shield machine type selection
    4.5 Main methods of shield machine type selection
    4.5.1 Selection according to the permeability coefficient of the strata
    4.5.2 Selection according to the particle size distribution of the strata
    4.5.3 Selection according to the underground water pressure
    4.5.4 Special factors that shall be considered for type selection
    4.6 Selection of shield machine forms
    4.6.1 EPB shield
    4.6.2 Slurry shields
    4.6.3 Hand-dug shield machines
    4.6.4 Semimechanical shield machines
    4.6.5 Mechanical shield machines
    4.6.6 Extrusion shield machines
    4.7 Cutting wheel structure form selection
    4.7.1 Main functions of a cutting wheel
    4.7.2 Structures of cutting wheel
    4.8 Types of cutting tools and rock-breaking mechanism
    4.8.1 Types of cutting tools
    4.8.2 Rock-breaking mechanism of cutting tools
    4.9 Cutting wheel drive mode selection
    4.10 Calculations of main technical parameters
    4.10.1 Outer diameter of shield machine
    4.10.2 Cutting wheel boring diameter
    4.10.3 Shield length
    4.10.4 The weight of shield machines
    4.10.5 Thrust force of shield machine
    4.10.6 Cutting wheel torque
    4.10.7 Main drive power
    4.10.8 Propulsion system power
    4.10.9 Capacity of synchronous grouting system
    4.10.10 Slurry transportation system
    4.11 Selection of construction auxiliary equipment

    Chapter 5: The construction of shield tunnel shafts
    5.1 General requirements for shield tunnel shaft
    5.1.1 Shield machine launching shaft
    5.1.2 Shield machine receiving shaft
    5.1.3 Intermediate shaft
    5.2 The construction method of shield machine shafts
    5.3 Open caisson shaft construction method
    5.3.1 Caisson structure
    5.3.2 Characteristics of open caisson construction method
    5.3.3 Dry excavation open caisson
    5.3.4 Undrained open caisson
    5.3.5 Pneumatic caisson construction method
    5.4 Construction method of retaining shaft
    5.4.1 Steel sheet pile enclosure construction shaft
    5.4.2 Construction shaft by column piles building envelope
    5.4.3 Shafts constructed by underground diaphragm wall building envelope
    5.5 Example of vertical shaft engineering

    Chapter 6: Shield method tunnel construction
    6.1 Site assembly and commissioning of shield machines
    6.1.1 Assembly and commissioning of shield machines
    6.1.2 Installation of launching cradle
    6.1.3 Sequences of shield machine assembly
    6.1.4 General requirements of shield machine assembly
    6.1.5 Key points of shield machine assembly
    6.1.6 Commissioning of shield machine
    6.2 Site acceptance of shield machine
    6.3 Technologies for shield machine launching
    6.3.1 Flow chart of shield machine launching
    6.3.2 End shaft stratum reinforcement
    6.3.3 Breaking of the portal
    6.3.4 Portal sealing
    6.3.5 Building blind rings
    6.3.6 Key points of launching
    6.4 Advance technologies of an EPB machine
    6.4.1 Construction flowchart of EPB tunneling
    6.4.2 Principle for advance management
    6.4.3 Advance in EPB condition
    6.4.4 Advance modes of an EPB machine
    6.4.5 Steering of shield machine
    6.5 The tunneling technology of a slurry machine
    6.5.1 The principle of a slurry machine
    6.5.2 Key points for slurry machine tunneling management
    6.5.3 Management of advance parameters
    6.5.4 Management of slurry pressure
    6.5.5 Slurry circuit system
    6.5.6 Slurry separation technology
    6.6 Ring building technology
    6.6.1 Preparation
    6.6.2 Ring building procedures
    6.6.3 Ring building control standard
    6.7 Back grout filling technology
    6.7.1 The purpose and method for back grout filling
    6.7.2 Parameter control of synchronized grouting
    6.7.3 Grouting material
    6.8 Construction measurement
    6.8.1 Cross-check survey
    6.8.2 Tunnel environment monitoring
    6.8.3 Tunnel structure monitoring
    6.8.4 Measurement for shield machine advancing
    6.8.5 Breakthrough measurement
    6.8.6 Completion survey
    6.9 Technologies for compressed air intervention
    6.9.1 Structure of manlock
    6.9.2 Key points of working in excavation chamber under pressure
    6.9.3 Safety precautions during pressurizing and working under pressure
    6.9.4 Disease prevention measures during decompression
    6.10 Inspection and replacement of cutting tools
    6.10.1 Key points of cutter inspection and replacement
    6.10.2 Preparation for tool replacement
    6.10.3 Procedure for tool change under atmospheric pressure
    6.10.4 Key notes for tool change under pressure
    6.10.5 Cutting tool wear monitoring
    6.10.6 Types of disc cutter damage
    6.10.7 Inspection of disc cutter
    6.10.8 Replacement of disc cutter
    6.10.9 Disc cutter change under pressure for EPB machines
    6.10.10 Compressed air intervention for slurry machine
    6.11 Construction in special sections and special geologic conditions
    6.11.1 Key points of construction in special sections and geologic conditions
    6.11.2 Targeted construction measures for special sections and geologic conditions
    6.12 Underground docking technology
    6.12.1 Mechanical docking methods
    6.12.2 Docking method with auxiliary reinforcement
    6.13 Waterproof technologies of tunnel construction
    6.13.1 Waterproof standard for mechanized tunnels
    6.13.2 Waterproof of segments
    6.13.3 Waterproofing of segment joints
    6.13.4 Waterproofing of handholes of segment
    6.13.5 Waterproofing of communication channel
    6.13.6 Waterproofing of special locations
    6.14 U-turn technology of shield machines
    6.14.1 Key points of shield machine U-turn operation
    6.14.2 Procedure for shield machine U-turn by extension pipelines
    6.14.3 Procedure for shield machine U-turn without extension pipelines
    6.14.4 Example of shield machine’s U-turn
    6.15 Shield machine arrival technology
    6.15.1 Shield machine arrival construction procedure
    6.15.2 Main contents of shield machine arrival construction
    6.15.3 Preparation for shield machine arrival
    6.15.4 Construction key points of shield machine arrival
    6.15.5 Recheck and measure at arrival position
    6.15.6 Shield machine tunneling at arrival section
    6.15.7 Installation of receiving base and pushing of shield machine onto receiving cradle
    6.15.8 Closure of portal ring
    6.16 Secondary lining construction technology
    6.16.1 Secondary lining of shield tunnel
    6.16.2 Secondary cast concrete equipment
    6.16.3 Mold trolley positioning, concrete pouring, and demolding
    6.16.4 Main technical measures for lining construction
    6.16.5 Key points of safe construction
    6.17 Disassembly and packing of shield machine
    6.17.1 General provisions
    6.17.2 Preparation before shield machine disassembly
    6.17.3 Disassembly of shield machine
    6.17.4 Shield machine packing
    6.18 Safety and health of shield construction
    6.18.1 Disaster prevention
    6.18.2 Countermeasures and first aid measures in emergency situations
    6.18.3 Protection and maintenance of working environment
    6.18.4 Compressed air management
    6.19 Environmental protection for shield construction
    6.19.1 Environmental protection characteristics of shield tunneling
    6.19.2 Implementation steps of environmental protection
    6.19.3 Environmental impact factors and countermeasures

    Chapter 7: Geotechnical problems of shield construction
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Stability issues of shield tunneling working face
    7.2.1 Overview
    7.2.2 Stability of slurry shield excavation face
    7.2.3 Stability of EPB shield excavation face
    7.2.4 Stability of excavation face under special conditions
    7.3 Geotechnical problems in shield tunneling
    7.3.1 Stratum deformation caused by shield tunneling
    7.3.2 Shield method construction and factors affecting stratum settlement
    7.3.3 The development process of ground surface upheaval and settlement
    7.3.4 Analysis of main settlement control factors in shield tunneling
    7.3.5 Main technical links of shield construction
    7.3.6 Measures to reduce stratum loss
    7.3.7 Stratum and buildings’ upheaval and settlement control
    7.3.8 Construction measures for shield machines crossing rivers
    7.3.9 Construction measures for shield machine crossing
    buildings (structures)
    7.3.10 Construction measures for shield machines in mixed ground
    7.4 Deformation and fluidity of soil layers under the tunnel
    7.4.1 Soil mass deformation
    7.4.2 Liquidity of soil mass
    7.5 Geotechnical problems of shield machine exit/entry sections
    7.5.1 Bad end reinforcement
    7.5.2 Instability when breaking the portal
    7.5.3 Shield machine “sinking” after launching
    7.5.4 Bad sealing effect of the portal
    7.5.5 Insufficient reinforcement length of end soil mass
    7.6 Soil mass reinforcement technology
    7.6.1 Rotary spray reinforcement
    7.6.2 Deep mixing reinforcement
    7.6.3 Freezing method construction

    Chapter 8: Tunnel lining structure and construction
    8.1 Tunnel lining structure
    8.1.1 Forms of tunnel section
    8.1.2 Composition of tunnel lining
    8.2 Primary lining
    8.2.1 Assembled segment lining
    8.2.2 Extruded concrete lining
    8.3 Secondary lining
    8.4 The structure of segments
    8.4.1 Composition of segment ring
    8.4.2 The partition of segment ring
    8.4.3 Segment width and thickness
    8.4.4 Segment joints
    8.4.5 Force transmission gasket
    8.4.6 Elastic gasket and corner waterproofing
    8.5 Segment design
    8.5.1 Design ideas
    8.5.2 Design considerations
    8.5.3 Segment design principles
    8.5.4 Load calculation
    8.5.5 Earthquake resistance demonstration
    8.5.6 Design method
    8.5.7 Design considerations

    Chapter 9: The technology of segment fabrication
    9.1 The allocation of resources
    9.1.1 The organization chart
    9.1.2 Quality management system
    9.1.3 Fabrication and testing equipment
    9.2 Preparation work before fabrication
    9.2.1 Fabrication workshop
    9.2.2 Mixing proportion design
    9.3 Main raw materials and standards
    9.4 The production technology of segments
    9.4.1 Rebar cage fabrication
    9.4.2 Segment fabrication
    9.4.3 Segment preservation, storage, and transportation

    Chapter 10: The management and applications of shield machines (TBM)
    10.1 The management of shield machines (TBM)
    10.1.1 The scope of management
    10.1.2 The organization of management
    10.1.3 Site management
    10.1.4 Post responsibilities
    10.1.5 Post performance assessment
    10.1.6 Technical training
    10.2 The use of shield machine (TBM) equipment
    10.2.1 Composition of construction organization plan
    10.2.2 Safety operating requirements
    10.2.3 Operation of shield machine
    10.3 Shield machine (TBM) maintenance and repair
    10.3.1 General rules
    10.3.2 Oil and water monitoring and condition monitoring
    10.3.3 Daily maintenance of shield machine
    10.3.4 Regular maintenance of shield machine
    10.3.5 Cutter maintenance of shield machine (TBM)
    10.3.6 Maintenance of major components and systems of shield machine
    10.3.7 Maintenance on key components and systems of hardrock TBM

Product details

  • No. of pages: 588
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2021
  • Published: February 5, 2021
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128201275
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128201282

About the Authors

Kui Chen

Professor-level, Senior Engineer, National Constructor, and Executive Deputy Director of the National Key Laboratory of Shield and Tunnelling Techniques. He is Adjunct Professor of Shijiazhuang Railway University, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, and Henan University of Science and Technology. He has run numerous national projects in China, and collaborated internationally. He is one of the founders of the shield industry in the country. He was awarded first prize from the National Science and Technology Progress Awards for his work in the area, and is a leader in the field.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor-level, Senior Engineer, National Constructor; Executive Deputy Director, National Key Laboratory of Shield and Tunnelling Techniques, China

Jiangka Wang

Born in 1975, Jiangka Wang, male, is master of architecture and civil engineering from Lanzhou Jiaotong University, professor-level senior engineer, national-level registered construction engineer, China Railway expert, who enjoys the special allowance of the State Council government and is Wuxi city model worker. He is now the deputy commander of the Guangzhou Rail Transit Project Command of China Railway and the project manager of Line 13 of the Guangzhou Rail Transit Project of China Railway. He is mainly engaged in shield construction and management of urban rail transit projects, and has won 5 national science and technology innovation awards, 2 provincial and ministerial science and technology innovation awards, 5 China Railway Science and Technology Innovation Awards, 1 utility model patent and 7 invention patents. He has participated in the construction of rail transit in Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Wuxi, Nanjing, Xiamen, Dalian and other cities, and has published more than 10 theses and participated in 2 national standards. He has authored academic works such as Key Technology of TBM Construction, Key Technology of Shield Construction, Design and Construction of Shield, China Shield, China Tunnel, China Bridge, China High Speed Rail, China Metro, Design and Construction of TBM, and Key Technology of Shield and Excavation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Senior Engineer, Deputy of China Railway Group Limited Guangzhou Rail Transit Engineering Headquarters, Guangzhou, China

Shengjun Jiao

Shengjun Jiao graduated in management science and engineering from Xi'an Jiaotong University. He is registered consulting (investment) engineer, registered tenderer, member of the National Steering Committee for Surveying and Mapping Geo-Information Vocational Education, and member of the China Railway Engineering Professional Steering Committee. As president of Shaanxi Railway Institute, he has presided over the construction of the national resource bank of "underground and tunnel engineering technology" and won the second prize of the Chinese teaching achievements.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of Shaanxi Railway Institute, Shaanxi, China

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