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Sex Differences in Physiology is an all-encompassing reference that details basic science research into sex differences in all physiological fields. It includes scientific discoveries concerning sex differences in cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal physiology. In addition, coverage of the development, endocrinology, neurophysiology, immunity, and metabolism is included, making this important reference a resource that will meet the needs of investigators interested in incorporating sex differences into their research programs, while also providing clinicians with the basis for providing the best sex-based medical treatment options available.
- Provides a sweeping, organ-by-organ review of currently observed sex differences in animal models and human disease
- Explains how sex differences influence physiology and disease
- Provides the critical knowledge on sex differences for better understanding of prevention and treatment of diseases
Researchers and Clinicians in most all physiological fields including but not limited to immunology, cardiology, nephrology, endocrinology, pulmonology, and neurology.
- List of Contributors
- Chapter 1. Introduction for Sex Differences in Physiology
- Chapter 2. Chromosomal and Endocrinological Origins of Sex
- Chromosomal Sex
- Gonadal/Hormonal Sex
- Endocrine Functions Across Life Span: An Emphasis on Mammalian Menopause
- Influences on Sexual Differentiation and Development
- Chapter 3. Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology: Implications for Brain Function, Behavior, and Neurological Disease
- Steroid Hormones
- Sex and Neuronal Signaling
- Neurological Control of Body Functions
- Sex and Behavior
- Sex and Neurological Disease
- Chapter 4. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Immune System
- Traditional Sex Hormone Receptors in the Immune System
- Vitamin D Receptor: A Sex Steroid Receptor
- Sex Differences in Innate Immunity
- Sex Differences in the Adaptive Immune System
- Effect of Vitamin D on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System
- Effect of Menopause on Inflammation
- Conclusions and Future Perspectives
- Chapter 5. Sex and Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease
- Coronary Heart Disease
- Heart Failure
- Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Right Ventricular Dysfunction
- Chapter 6. Sex Differences in Pulmonary Anatomy and Physiology: Implications for Health and Disease
- Sex Differences in the Pulmonary System
- Sex Steroid Signaling in the Lung
- Impact of Sex Steroids on Pulmonary Structure and Function
- Sex Differences in Diseases of the Lung
- Implications of Sex Differences in the Lung
- Chapter 7. Sex Differences in Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology
- Kidney Anatomy, Development, and Overall Function
- Water Homeostasis and Aquaporins
- BP Control and Electrolyte Homeostasis
- Metabolic Influences on the Kidney
- Phosphorus, Calcium, Vitamin D, and Renal Stones
- Acid-Base Homeostasis and Renal Elimination of Toxins and Drugs
- Special Conditions and Renal Pathology
- Biological Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in the Kidney
- Chapter 8. Sex Differences in Gastrointestinal Physiology and Diseases: From Endogenous Sex Hormones to Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Agents
- Estrogen, Androgen, and Progesterone Receptor Expression along the GI Tract
- Sex Hormone Modulation of Gastrointestinal Motility
- Epithelial Ion Transport and Gut Barrier Function
- Influence of Sex in Gastrointestinal Diseases and Pain Sensitivity
- Age, Gender, and Hormonal Status in Food Safety: Open Questions for Endocrine Disruptor Compounds
- Summary and Conclusions
- Chapter 9. Sex and Gender Differences in Body Composition, Lipid Metabolism, and Glucose Regulation
- Sex Differences in Body Fat Deposition
- Sex Differences in Lipid Metabolism
- Sex Differences in Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Action
- Chapter 10. Sex Hormone Influenced Differences in Skeletal Muscle Responses to Aging and Exercise
- E2 Loss and Aging Muscle
- Skeletal Muscle Aging in Men
- Chapter 11. Strategies and Approaches for Studying Sex Differences in Physiology
- Historical Barriers to the Study of Both Sexes
- Why Study Sex Differences?
- Where Do Sex Differences Come From?
- What is the Nature of Sex Differences?
- Chapter 11.1. How to Study Sex Differences Caused by “Sex Chromosome Effects” on Tissues
- The Four Core Genotypes Mouse Model
- The XY* Model
- Finding the Genes
- The Future of Sex Chromosome Effects
- Chapter 11.2. Organizational Influences of the Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Lessons Learned Through the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis
- Sex Differences in the HPA Axis
- Organizational–Activational Effects on the HPA Axis
- Mapping Gonadal Hormone Sensitive Circuits in the Brain
- Strategies for Research on Gonadal Steroid Organizational Influences on the HPA Axis
- Conclusions and Future Directions
- Chapter 11.3. Strategies and Approaches for the Study of Activational Influences of Gonadal Hormones on Sex Differences in Physiology and Behavior
- The Gonadal Hormones
- You Find a Sex Difference in a Trait—What Now?
- Chapter 11.4. Human Methodologies in the Study of Sex Differences
- Prenatal Hormone Exposure
- Adult Hormone Exposure
- Brain Imaging Methodologies
- Psychosocial Methodologies
- References for Strategies and Approaches for Studying Sex Differences in Physiology
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2016
- 16th May 2016
- Academic Press
- Paperback ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Dr. Gretchen Neigh is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Dr. Neigh’s research uses animal models to provide insight into the role of cerebral vascular and metabolic compromise in the generation of affective and cognitive disorders. Her work focuses on periods of increased plasticity and susceptibility to insults such as adolescence and late life. The work in Dr. Neigh’s lab is multidisciplinary and attends to the interplay among the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems. In addition, her work spans multiple levels of analysis from assessment and manipulation of gene expression, to imaging in rodents, to behavioral analysis.
Dr. Neigh has received funding from the National Alliance for the Study of Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD), the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, the American Heart Association, the Claude Pepper Center, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the National Institute for Nursing Research, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, and the National Institute of Mental Health. In addition to her research program, Dr. Neigh serves on the Executive Committee of the Organization for the Study of Sex Difference (OSSD) and the editorial boards of Hormones & Behavior and Physiology & Behavior. More information about her work can be found at: http://gretchenneigh.wix.com/neighlab
Associate Professor, Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0709
Dr. Megan Mitzelfelt has primary research interests in sex hormone regulation of epithelial transport and its role in the sex differences observed in normal physiology and disease. Most currently her research involves understanding the regulation of alveolar epithelial sodium channels by estradiol. Using cell-attached patch clamp and biochemistry, she is investigating the mechanism of estradiol’s activation of the epithelial sodium channel in a rat alveolar cell line. In future studies, she will examine how female sex hormones affect alveolar sodium channel activity in vivo using patch clamp analysis of alveolar cells from lung slices and through determination of alveolar fluid clearance in male, female, and ovariectomized rats. Finally, she will examine how estradiol’s regulation of these sodium channels contributes to the sex differences observed in cystic fibrosis and influenza through the use of mouse models of these diseases.
Department of Physiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
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