Semiconductor Gas Sensors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857092366, 9780857098665

Semiconductor Gas Sensors

1st Edition

Editors: Raivo Jaaniso Ooi Kiang Tan
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092366
eBook ISBN: 9780857098665
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st August 2013
Page Count: 576
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of semiconductor gas sensors


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Classification of semiconductor gas sensors

1.3 Resistor type sensors: empirical aspects

1.4 Resistor type sensors: theoretical aspects

1.5 Non-resistive sensors

1.6 Future trends

Chapter 2: Conduction mechanism in semiconducting metal oxide sensing films: impact on transduction


2.1 Introduction

2.2 General discussion about sensing with semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors

2.3 Sensing and transduction for p- and n-type semiconducting metal oxides

2.4 Investigation of the conduction mechanism in semiconducting metal oxide sensing layers: studies in working conditions

2.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 3: Electrode materials and electrode-oxide interfaces in semiconductor gas sensors


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Electrode materials for semiconductor gas sensors

3.3 Electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces

3.4 Charge carrier transport in the electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces

3.5 Gas/solid interactions in the electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces

3.6 Conclusion

Part II: Advanced sensing methods and structures

Chapter 4: Recent trends in silicon carbide (SiC) and graphene-based gas sensors


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Background: transduction and sensing mechanisms

4.3 Recent material developments for improved selectivity of SiC gas sensors

4.4 Dynamic sensor operation

4.5 Novel SiC and graphene-based sensor devices

4.6 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Recent advances in wide bandgap semiconductor-based gas sensors


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Gas sensing

5.3 Hydrogen sensing

5.4 GaN Schottky diode sensor

5.5 Nanostructured wide bandgap materials

5.6 Silicon carbide Schottky diode hydrogen sensor

5.7 Wireless sensor network development

5.8 Conclusion

5.9 Acknowledgments

Chapter 6: Micromachined semiconductor gas sensors


6.1 Introduction

6.2 A brief history of semiconductors as gas sensitive devices

6.3 Micro-hotplate concept and technologies

6.4 Micromachined metal-oxide gas sensors

6.5 Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-oxide gas sensors

6.6 Micromachined field-effect gas sensors

6.7 Trends and perspectives

6.8 Conclusion

Chapter 7: Semiconducting direct thermoelectric gas sensors


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Direct thermoelectric gas sensors

7.3 Conclusion and future trends

Part III: Nanomaterials for gas sensing

Chapter 8: One- and two-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures for chemical sensing


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Deposition techniques

8.3 Conductometric sensor

8.4 Transduction principles and related novel devices

8.5 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 9: Semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescence-based gas sensing


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Quantum dot synthesis, surface functionalization and polymer encapsulation

9.3 Quantum dots for sensing: dependence of detection limits and selectivity on surface-modifying ligands

9.4 Quantum dot–polymer system

9.5 Quantum dot–nanopore array system

9.6 Conclusion and future trends

9.7 Acknowledgments

Chapter 10: Coated and functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as gas sensors


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Gas sensor architecture

10.3 Gas sensing mechanisms

10.4 Routes towards sensor selectivity

10.5 Applications

10.6 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Carbon nanotube and metal oxide hybrid materials for gas sensing


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Fabrication and synthesis of carbon nanotube–metal oxide sensing devices

11.3 Preparation of carbon nanotube–metal oxide sensing films

11.4 Sensor assembly

11.5 Characterization of carbon nanotube–metal oxide materials

11.6 Sensing mechanism of carbon nanotube-metal oxide gas sensors

11.7 Conclusion

Chapter 12: Porous silicon gas sensors


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Conductivity and capacitance sensors

12.3 Luminescence from PSi

12.4 Optical and photo properties of PSi sensors

12.5 PSi noise sensors

12.6 Different PSi gas sensors

12.7 Conclusion

Part IV: Applications of semiconductor gas sensors

Chapter 13: Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors in environmental monitoring


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sensor synthesis methods

13.3 Metal oxide semiconductors in detecting environmentally important gases

13.4 Advances in carbon monoxide sensors

13.5 Advances in carbon dioxide sensors

13.6 Advances in nitrogen oxides sensors

13.7 Future trends

13.8 Conclusion

13.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: Semiconductor gas sensors for chemical warfare agents


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Chemical warfare agents

14.3 Chemical warfare agent detecting techniques

14.4 Device preparation

14.5 Sensing properties

14.6 Conclusion

Chapter 15: Integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based sensors for gas and odour detection


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Micro-resistive complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors

15.3 Micro-calorimetric complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor

15.4 Sensing materials and their deposition on complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors

15.5 Interface circuitry and its integration

15.6 Integrated multi-sensor and sensor array systems

15.7 Conclusion and future trends

15.8 Useful web addresses

Chapter 16: Solid-state sensors for carbon dioxide detection


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Electrochemical sensors

16.3 Impedimetric, capacitive and resistive sensors

16.4 Field effect transistor sensors

16.5 New approaches to enhance sensor performance

16.6 Conclusion and future trends



Semiconductor gas sensors have a wide range of applications in safety, process control, environmental monitoring, indoor or cabin air quality and medical diagnosis. This important book summarises recent research on basic principles, new materials and emerging technologies in this essential field.

The first part of the book reviews the underlying principles and sensing mechanisms for n- and p-type oxide semiconductors, introduces the theory for nanosize materials and describes the role of electrode–semiconductor interfaces. The second part of the book describes recent developments in silicon carbide- and graphene-based gas sensors, wide bandgap semiconductor gas sensors and micromachined and direct thermoelectric gas sensors. Part 3 discusses the use of nanomaterials for gas sensing, including metal oxide nanostructures, quantum dots, single-alled carbon nanotubes and porous silicon. The final part of the book surveys key applications in environmental monitoring, detecting chemical warfare agents and monitoring gases such as carbon dioxide.

Semiconductor gas sensors is a valuable reference work for all those involved in gas monitoring, including those in the building industry, environmental engineers, defence and security specialists and researchers in this field.

Key Features

  • Provides an overview of resistor and non-resistor sensors
  • Reviews developments in gas sensors and sensing methods, including graphene based sensors and direct thermoelectric sensors
  • Discusses the use of nanomaterials in gas sensing


Industrial scientists, academic professionals, national lab scientists and students who are working in the field of chemical and biochemical sensor research and development


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© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

Raivo Jaaniso Editor

Raivo Jaaniso is a Senior Scientist in the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Tartu, Estonia

Ooi Kiang Tan Editor

Ooi Kiang Tan is Professor of Microelectronics in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technical University, Singapore.

Affiliations and Expertise

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore