Semiconductor Gas Sensors

Semiconductor Gas Sensors

1st Edition - August 31, 2013

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  • Editors: Raivo Jaaniso, Ooi Kiang Tan
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092366
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098665

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Semiconductor gas sensors have a wide range of applications in safety, process control, environmental monitoring, indoor or cabin air quality and medical diagnosis. This important book summarises recent research on basic principles, new materials and emerging technologies in this essential field.The first part of the book reviews the underlying principles and sensing mechanisms for n- and p-type oxide semiconductors, introduces the theory for nanosize materials and describes the role of electrode–semiconductor interfaces. The second part of the book describes recent developments in silicon carbide- and graphene-based gas sensors, wide bandgap semiconductor gas sensors and micromachined and direct thermoelectric gas sensors. Part 3 discusses the use of nanomaterials for gas sensing, including metal oxide nanostructures, quantum dots, single-alled carbon nanotubes and porous silicon. The final part of the book surveys key applications in environmental monitoring, detecting chemical warfare agents and monitoring gases such as carbon dioxide.Semiconductor gas sensors is a valuable reference work for all those involved in gas monitoring, including those in the building industry, environmental engineers, defence and security specialists and researchers in this field.

Key Features

  • Provides an overview of resistor and non-resistor sensors
  • Reviews developments in gas sensors and sensing methods, including graphene based sensors and direct thermoelectric sensors
  • Discusses the use of nanomaterials in gas sensing


Industrial scientists, academic professionals, national lab scientists and students who are working in the field of chemical and biochemical sensor research and development

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials

    Part I: Introduction

    Chapter 1: Fundamentals of semiconductor gas sensors


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Classification of semiconductor gas sensors

    1.3 Resistor type sensors: empirical aspects

    1.4 Resistor type sensors: theoretical aspects

    1.5 Non-resistive sensors

    1.6 Future trends

    Chapter 2: Conduction mechanism in semiconducting metal oxide sensing films: impact on transduction


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 General discussion about sensing with semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors

    2.3 Sensing and transduction for p- and n-type semiconducting metal oxides

    2.4 Investigation of the conduction mechanism in semiconducting metal oxide sensing layers: studies in working conditions

    2.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 3: Electrode materials and electrode-oxide interfaces in semiconductor gas sensors


    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Electrode materials for semiconductor gas sensors

    3.3 Electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces

    3.4 Charge carrier transport in the electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces

    3.5 Gas/solid interactions in the electrode-oxide semiconductor interfaces

    3.6 Conclusion

    Part II: Advanced sensing methods and structures

    Chapter 4: Recent trends in silicon carbide (SiC) and graphene-based gas sensors


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Background: transduction and sensing mechanisms

    4.3 Recent material developments for improved selectivity of SiC gas sensors

    4.4 Dynamic sensor operation

    4.5 Novel SiC and graphene-based sensor devices

    4.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 5: Recent advances in wide bandgap semiconductor-based gas sensors


    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Gas sensing

    5.3 Hydrogen sensing

    5.4 GaN Schottky diode sensor

    5.5 Nanostructured wide bandgap materials

    5.6 Silicon carbide Schottky diode hydrogen sensor

    5.7 Wireless sensor network development

    5.8 Conclusion

    5.9 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 6: Micromachined semiconductor gas sensors


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 A brief history of semiconductors as gas sensitive devices

    6.3 Micro-hotplate concept and technologies

    6.4 Micromachined metal-oxide gas sensors

    6.5 Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible metal-oxide gas sensors

    6.6 Micromachined field-effect gas sensors

    6.7 Trends and perspectives

    6.8 Conclusion

    Chapter 7: Semiconducting direct thermoelectric gas sensors


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Direct thermoelectric gas sensors

    7.3 Conclusion and future trends

    Part III: Nanomaterials for gas sensing

    Chapter 8: One- and two-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures for chemical sensing


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Deposition techniques

    8.3 Conductometric sensor

    8.4 Transduction principles and related novel devices

    8.5 Conclusion and future trends

    Chapter 9: Semiconductor quantum dots for photoluminescence-based gas sensing


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Quantum dot synthesis, surface functionalization and polymer encapsulation

    9.3 Quantum dots for sensing: dependence of detection limits and selectivity on surface-modifying ligands

    9.4 Quantum dot–polymer system

    9.5 Quantum dot–nanopore array system

    9.6 Conclusion and future trends

    9.7 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 10: Coated and functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as gas sensors


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Gas sensor architecture

    10.3 Gas sensing mechanisms

    10.4 Routes towards sensor selectivity

    10.5 Applications

    10.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 11: Carbon nanotube and metal oxide hybrid materials for gas sensing


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Fabrication and synthesis of carbon nanotube–metal oxide sensing devices

    11.3 Preparation of carbon nanotube–metal oxide sensing films

    11.4 Sensor assembly

    11.5 Characterization of carbon nanotube–metal oxide materials

    11.6 Sensing mechanism of carbon nanotube-metal oxide gas sensors

    11.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 12: Porous silicon gas sensors


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Conductivity and capacitance sensors

    12.3 Luminescence from PSi

    12.4 Optical and photo properties of PSi sensors

    12.5 PSi noise sensors

    12.6 Different PSi gas sensors

    12.7 Conclusion

    Part IV: Applications of semiconductor gas sensors

    Chapter 13: Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors in environmental monitoring


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Sensor synthesis methods

    13.3 Metal oxide semiconductors in detecting environmentally important gases

    13.4 Advances in carbon monoxide sensors

    13.5 Advances in carbon dioxide sensors

    13.6 Advances in nitrogen oxides sensors

    13.7 Future trends

    13.8 Conclusion

    13.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 14: Semiconductor gas sensors for chemical warfare agents


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Chemical warfare agents

    14.3 Chemical warfare agent detecting techniques

    14.4 Device preparation

    14.5 Sensing properties

    14.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 15: Integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based sensors for gas and odour detection


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Micro-resistive complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors

    15.3 Micro-calorimetric complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor

    15.4 Sensing materials and their deposition on complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors

    15.5 Interface circuitry and its integration

    15.6 Integrated multi-sensor and sensor array systems

    15.7 Conclusion and future trends

    15.8 Useful web addresses

    Chapter 16: Solid-state sensors for carbon dioxide detection


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Electrochemical sensors

    16.3 Impedimetric, capacitive and resistive sensors

    16.4 Field effect transistor sensors

    16.5 New approaches to enhance sensor performance

    16.6 Conclusion and future trends


Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: August 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092366
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098665

About the Editors

Raivo Jaaniso

Raivo Jaaniso is a Senior Scientist in the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Tartu, Estonia

Ooi Kiang Tan

Ooi Kiang Tan is Professor of Microelectronics in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technical University, Singapore.

Affiliations and Expertise

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

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