Semiconducting Ore Minerals

Semiconducting Ore Minerals

1st Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: R Shuey
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601421

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Description

Developments in Economic Geology, 4: Semiconducting Ore Minerals provides a comprehensive discussion of the semiconductor physics of ore minerals, which is a specialized field that is interdisciplinary to materials science and earth science. The book is organized into four parts. Part I deals with basic principles such as the electronic structure of solids; electrical conduction in semiconductors; and various crystal properties which, like conductivity, depend primarily upon the electronic structure. It also discusses theoretical and experimental investigations pertinent to complex electrical inhomogeneity. Part 2 examines the properties of elements such as bismuth, copper, and graphite. Part 3 deals with sulfides including arsenopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, covellite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. Part 4 covers oxides, including cassiterite, cuprite, hematite, magnetite, pyrolusite, and rutile. This book may be a useful reference for those involved with research on ore minerals, including geophysicists, geochemists, or extractive metallurgists.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Definition of ore mineral

    Occurrence of ore minerals

    Mineral conductivity

    Significance of conductivity

    References

    Part One: Principles

    Chapter 1. Electronic Structure

    Energy units

    Wave mechanics

    Independent-electron approximation

    Atomic structure

    Electronic energy levels in ionic crystals

    Packing of spheres

    Ionic radii

    Transition metal ions

    Covalence

    Delocalized electrons

    Energy bands

    Bond type

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 2. Conduction Mechanism

    Measurement of conductivity or resistivity

    Electrical anisotropy

    Drude theory

    Electronic units

    Mobility

    Hopping

    Electron-hole equilibrium

    Donors and acceptors

    Native atomic disorder

    Defect association

    Screening

    Defect equilibrium calculations

    Intrinsic semiconduction

    Trapping equilibria

    Compensation

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Dielectrics

    Conductivity versus temperature

    Resistivity versus pressure

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 3. Other Electronic Properties

    Description of alternating-field electrical response

    Conduction versus polarization

    Mechanisms of alternating-field electrical response

    Free-carrier absorption

    Interband transitions

    Lattice polarization

    Dipole orientation

    Magnetic susceptibility

    Diamagnetism

    Paramagnetism

    Magnetic order

    Galvanomagnetic effects

    Thermal conductivity

    Thermoelectricity

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 4. Heterogeneity and the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface

    Mixture formulas

    Application to ore conductivity

    Maxwell-Wagner effect

    Observation of the Maxwell-Wagner effect

    P-N junctions

    Other electronic interfaces

    Composition of mineral waters

    Conductivity of mineral waters

    Water in alternating electric fields

    Semiconductor-electrolyte interface

    Interface charge distribution

    Interface capacitance

    Zeta potential and adsorption

    Electrode potential

    Electrode potentials of common sulfides

    Reaction impedance

    Diffusion impedance

    Equivalent circuits

    Induced polarization

    Types of interface reactions

    Summary

    References

    Part Two: Elements

    Chapter 5. Bismuth - Bi

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Band gap and overlap

    Effective mass

    Mobility

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 6. Copper - Cu

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity and type

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Effective mass

    Mobility

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 7. Graphite - C

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Band overlap

    Effective mass

    Mobility

    Structural imperfections

    Impurity

    Summary

    References

    Part Three: Sulfides

    Chapter 8. Arsenopyrite - FeAsS

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity and type

    Marcasite structure

    Arsenopyrite structure

    Magnetism

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Conductivity activation energy

    Energy gap

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Lllingite

    Safflorite

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 9. Bornite Cu5FeS4

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type

    Structure

    High temperature resistivity

    Bonding

    Magnetism

    Band structure

    Defect ionization

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurity

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 10. Chalcocite - Cu2-xS

    Occurrence

    Mineralogy

    Resistivity and type

    Structure

    Ionic mobility

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Hole mobility

    Effective mass

    Defect ionization

    Nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 11. Chalcopyrite - CuFeS2

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity and type

    Structure

    Magnetic structure

    Bonding

    Band gap

    Band structure

    Mobility

    Defect ionization

    Nonstoichiometry: metal/sulfur ratio

    Nonstoichiometry: Cu/Fe ratio

    Impurities

    Cubanite

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 12. Covellite - CuS

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Nonstoichiometry and impurity

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 13. Galena - PbS

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity and type

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Energy gap

    Fourfold degeneracy of electronic states

    Effective mass

    Mobility

    Carrier concentration

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 14. Molybdenite - MoS2

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type

    Anisotropy

    Frequency effect

    Structure

    Bonding

    Energy gap

    Band structure

    Effective mass

    Hole mobility

    Electron mobility

    Defect ionization

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 15. Pyrrhotite - Fe1-xS

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Composition

    Resistivity

    Anisotropy

    Type

    Crystal structure

    Magnetic structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 16. Pyrite - FeS2

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity and type

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Energy gap

    Mobility

    Carrier concentration

    Defect ionization

    Nonstoichiometry

    Pyrite geothermometer

    Impurities

    Electrical properties of related minerals

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 17. Sphalerite - ZnS

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Effective mass

    Mobility

    Defect chemistry

    Impurity conduction

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 18. Miscellaneous Supfides

    Argentite - Ag2S

    Cinnabar - HgS

    Enargite - Cu3AsS4

    Pyrargyrite - Ag3SbS3

    Proustite - Ag3 AsS3

    Skutterudite - CoAs3

    Stibnite - Sb2S3

    Bismuthinite - Bi2S3

    Tetrahedrite - Cu12Sb4S13

    Tennantite - Cu12As4S13

    References

    Part Four: Oxides

    Chapter 19. Cassiterite - CnO2

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Effective mass

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 20. Cuprite - Cu2O

    Occurrence

    Type and resistivity

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 21. Hematite - ?-Fe2O3

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type and anisotropy

    Structure

    Magnetic structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Resistivity activation energy

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Ilmenite

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 22. Magnetite - Fe3O4

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    Type

    Structure

    Magnetic structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry and maghemite

    Titanomagnetite

    Exsolution

    Other impurities

    Verweys rule

    Jacobsite and hausmannite

    Chromite

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 23. Pyrolusite - MnO2

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity and type

    Structure

    Magnetic structure

    Electric order (?)

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurities

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 24. Rutile - TiO2

    Occurrence

    Related minerals

    Resistivity

    type and anisotropy

    Structure

    Bonding

    Band structure

    Mobility

    Nonstoichiometry

    Impurity

    Summary

    References

    Subject Index

    Mineral Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 427
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601421

About the Author

R Shuey

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