Semiconducting Ore Minerals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444413574, 9780444601421

Semiconducting Ore Minerals

1st Edition

Authors: R Shuey
eBook ISBN: 9780444601421
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 427
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Description

Developments in Economic Geology, 4: Semiconducting Ore Minerals provides a comprehensive discussion of the semiconductor physics of ore minerals, which is a specialized field that is interdisciplinary to materials science and earth science.
The book is organized into four parts. Part I deals with basic principles such as the electronic structure of solids; electrical conduction in semiconductors; and various crystal properties which, like conductivity, depend primarily upon the electronic structure. It also discusses theoretical and experimental investigations pertinent to complex electrical inhomogeneity. Part 2 examines the properties of elements such as bismuth, copper, and graphite. Part 3 deals with sulfides including arsenopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, covellite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. Part 4 covers oxides, including cassiterite, cuprite, hematite, magnetite, pyrolusite, and rutile.
This book may be a useful reference for those involved with research on ore minerals, including geophysicists, geochemists, or extractive metallurgists.

Table of Contents


Introduction

Definition of ore mineral

Occurrence of ore minerals

Mineral conductivity

Significance of conductivity

References

Part One: Principles

Chapter 1. Electronic Structure

Energy units

Wave mechanics

Independent-electron approximation

Atomic structure

Electronic energy levels in ionic crystals

Packing of spheres

Ionic radii

Transition metal ions

Covalence

Delocalized electrons

Energy bands

Bond type

Summary

References

Chapter 2. Conduction Mechanism

Measurement of conductivity or resistivity

Electrical anisotropy

Drude theory

Electronic units

Mobility

Hopping

Electron-hole equilibrium

Donors and acceptors

Native atomic disorder

Defect association

Screening

Defect equilibrium calculations

Intrinsic semiconduction

Trapping equilibria

Compensation

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Dielectrics

Conductivity versus temperature

Resistivity versus pressure

Summary

References

Chapter 3. Other Electronic Properties

Description of alternating-field electrical response

Conduction versus polarization

Mechanisms of alternating-field electrical response

Free-carrier absorption

Interband transitions

Lattice polarization

Dipole orientation

Magnetic susceptibility

Diamagnetism

Paramagnetism

Magnetic order

Galvanomagnetic effects

Thermal conductivity

Thermoelectricity

Summary

References

Chapter 4. Heterogeneity and the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface

Mixture formulas

Application to ore conductivity

Maxwell-Wagner effect

Observation of the Maxwell-Wagner effect

P-N junctions

Other electronic interfaces

Composition of mineral waters

Conductivity of mineral waters

Water in alternating electric fields

Semiconductor-electrolyte interface

Interface charge distribution

Interface capacitance

Zeta potential and adsorption

Electrode potential

Electrode potentials of common sulfides

Reaction impedance

Diffusion impedance

Equivalent circuits

Induced polarization

Types of interface reactions

Summary

References

Part Two: Elements

Chapter 5. Bismuth - Bi

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Band gap and overlap

Effective mass

Mobility

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 6. Copper - Cu

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity and type

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Effective mass

Mobility

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 7. Graphite - C

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Band overlap

Effective mass

Mobility

Structural imperfections

Impurity

Summary

References

Part Three: Sulfides

Chapter 8. Arsenopyrite - FeAsS

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity and type

Marcasite structure

Arsenopyrite structure

Magnetism

Bonding

Band structure

Conductivity activation energy

Energy gap

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Lllingite

Safflorite

Summary

References

Chapter 9. Bornite Cu5FeS4

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type

Structure

High temperature resistivity

Bonding

Magnetism

Band structure

Defect ionization

Nonstoichiometry

Impurity

Summary

References

Chapter 10. Chalcocite - Cu2-xS

Occurrence

Mineralogy

Resistivity and type

Structure

Ionic mobility

Bonding

Band structure

Hole mobility

Effective mass

Defect ionization

Nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration

Summary

References

Chapter 11. Chalcopyrite - CuFeS2

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity and type

Structure

Magnetic structure

Bonding

Band gap

Band structure

Mobility

Defect ionization

Nonstoichiometry: metal/sulfur ratio

Nonstoichiometry: Cu/Fe ratio

Impurities

Cubanite

Summary

References

Chapter 12. Covellite - CuS

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Nonstoichiometry and impurity

Summary

References

Chapter 13. Galena - PbS

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity and type

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Energy gap

Fourfold degeneracy of electronic states

Effective mass

Mobility

Carrier concentration

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 14. Molybdenite - MoS2

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type

Anisotropy

Frequency effect

Structure

Bonding

Energy gap

Band structure

Effective mass

Hole mobility

Electron mobility

Defect ionization

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 15. Pyrrhotite - Fe1-xS

Occurrence

Related minerals

Composition

Resistivity

Anisotropy

Type

Crystal structure

Magnetic structure

Bonding

Band structure

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 16. Pyrite - FeS2

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity and type

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Energy gap

Mobility

Carrier concentration

Defect ionization

Nonstoichiometry

Pyrite geothermometer

Impurities

Electrical properties of related minerals

Summary

References

Chapter 17. Sphalerite - ZnS

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Effective mass

Mobility

Defect chemistry

Impurity conduction

Summary

References

Chapter 18. Miscellaneous Supfides

Argentite - Ag2S

Cinnabar - HgS

Enargite - Cu3AsS4

Pyrargyrite - Ag3SbS3

Proustite - Ag3 AsS3

Skutterudite - CoAs3

Stibnite - Sb2S3

Bismuthinite - Bi2S3

Tetrahedrite - Cu12Sb4S13

Tennantite - Cu12As4S13

References

Part Four: Oxides

Chapter 19. Cassiterite - CnO2

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Effective mass

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 20. Cuprite - Cu2O

Occurrence

Type and resistivity

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 21. Hematite - ?-Fe2O3

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type and anisotropy

Structure

Magnetic structure

Bonding

Band structure

Resistivity activation energy

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Ilmenite

Summary

References

Chapter 22. Magnetite - Fe3O4

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

Type

Structure

Magnetic structure

Bonding

Band structure

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry and maghemite

Titanomagnetite

Exsolution

Other impurities

Verweys rule

Jacobsite and hausmannite

Chromite

Summary

References

Chapter 23. Pyrolusite - MnO2

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity and type

Structure

Magnetic structure

Electric order (?)

Bonding

Band structure

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry

Impurities

Summary

References

Chapter 24. Rutile - TiO2

Occurrence

Related minerals

Resistivity

type and anisotropy

Structure

Bonding

Band structure

Mobility

Nonstoichiometry

Impurity

Summary

References

Subject Index

Mineral Index

Details

No. of pages:
427
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1975
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601421

About the Author

R Shuey

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