Self-Checking and Fault-Tolerant Digital Design - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124343702, 9780080516936

Self-Checking and Fault-Tolerant Digital Design

1st Edition

Authors: Parag Lala
eBook ISBN: 9780080516936
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124343702
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 26th June 2000
Page Count: 400
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Fundamentals of Reliability

1.1 Reliability and Failure Rate

1.2 Relation between Reliability and Mean-Time-Between-Failures

1.3 Maintainability

1.4 Availability

1.5 Series and Parallel Systems

1.6 Dependability


Chapter 2 - Error Detecting and Correcting Codes

2.1 Parity Code

2.2 Multiple Error Detecting Codes

2.2.1 Unordered Codes for Unidirectional Error Detection m-out-of-n Codes Berger Code

2.2.2 t-unidirectional Error Detecting Codes

Borden Code

Bose-Lin Codes

2.2.3 Burst Unidirectional Error Detecting Code

2.3 Residue Codes

2.4 Cyclic Codes

2.5 Error-Correcting Codes

2.5.1 Hamming Code

2.5.2 Hsiao Code

2.5.3 Reed-Solomon Code


Chapter 3 - Self-Checking Combinational Logic Design

3.1 Strongly Fault-secure Circuits

3.2 Strongly Code-disjoint Circuits

3.3 Terminology

3.4 Bidirectional Error Free Combinational Circuit Design

3.5 Detection of Input Fault Induced Bidirectional Errors

3.6 Techniques for Bidirectional Error Elimination

3.6.1 Input Encoding

3.6.2 Output Encoding

3.7 Self-dual Parity Checking

3.8 Self-Checking Design using Low-Cost Residue Code

3.9 Totally Self-Checking PLA Design

3.10 Fail-safe Combinational Circuit Design


Chapter 4 - Self-Checking Checkers

4.1 The Two-rail Checker

4.2 Totally Self-Checking Checkers for m-out-of-n codes

4.2.1 Pass Transistor-based Checker Design for a subset of m-out-of-2m codes

4.2.2 Totally Self-Checking Checker for I-out-of-n-code

4.3 Totally Self-Checking Checkers for Berger code

4.4 Totally Self-Checking Checkers for Low-cost Residue code


Chapter 5 - Self-Checking Sequential Circuit Design

5.1 Faults in State Machines

5.2 Self-Checking State Machine Design Techniques

5.3 Elimination of Bidirectional Errors

5.4 Synthesis of Redundant Fault-free State Machines

5.5 Decomposition of Finite State Machines

5.6 Self-Checking Interacting State Machine Design

5.7 Fail-safe State Machine Design


Chapter 6 - Fault-Tolerant Design

6.1 Hardware Redundancy

6.1.1 Static Redundancy

Triple Modular Redundancy

6.1.2 Dynamic Redundancy

6.1.3 Hybrid redundancy

6.2 Information Redundancy

6.2.1 Fault-tolerant state machine design using Hamming codes

6.2.2 Error Checking and Correction (ED) in Memory Systems

6.2.3 Improvement in Reliability with ECC

6.2.4 Multiple Error Correction using Orthogonal Latin Square Configuration

6.2.5 Soft error Correction using Horizontal and Vertical Parity Method

6.3 Time Redundancy

6.4 Software Redundancy

6.5 System Level Fault Tolerance

6.5.1 Byzantine Fault Model

6.5.2 System Level Fault Detection

6.5.3 Backward Recovery Schemes

6.5.4 Forward Recovery Schemes References



Markov Models


With VLSI chip transistors getting smaller and smaller, today's digital systems are more complex than ever before. This increased complexity leads to more cross-talk, noise, and other sources of transient errors during normal operation. Traditional off-line testing strategies cannot guarantee detection of these transient faults. And with critical applications relying on faster, more powerful chips, fault-tolerant, self-checking mechanisms must be built in to assure reliable operation.

Self-Checking and Fault-Tolerant Digital Design deals extensively with self-checking design techniques and is the only book that emphasizes major techniques for hardware fault tolerance. Graduate students in VLSI design courses as well as practicing designers will appreciate this balanced treatment of the concepts and theory underlying fault tolerance along with the practical techniques used to create fault-tolerant systems.

Key Features

  • Introduces reliability theory and the importance of maintainability
  • Presents coding and the construction of several error detecting and correcting codes
  • Discusses in depth, the available techniques for fail-safe design of combinational circuits
  • Details checker design techniques for detecting erroneous bits and encoding output of self-checking circuits
  • Demonstrates how to design self-checking sequential circuits, including a technique for fail-safe state machine design


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© Morgan Kaufmann 2000
Morgan Kaufmann
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About the Authors

Parag Lala Author

The author is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at North Carolina A&T State University. He is the author of more than 75 papers, and three books published by Prentice Hall. His research interests include design for testability, self-checking logic design, automatic logic synthesis of low power logic circuits, andCPLD/FPGA based system design. He received a M.S. from King's College, London, and a Ph.D. from the City University of London.

Affiliations and Expertise

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University