Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444805072, 9780444598202

Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry, Volume 35

1st Edition

Personal Recollections, Part I

Editors: G. Semenza
eBook ISBN: 9780444598202
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1983
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Table of Contents


Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry Personal Recollections. I.

General Preface

Preface to Volume 35

Contributors to this volume

List of Plates

Contents

Chapter 1. The Isolation of Cori-Ester, "The Saint Louis Gateway" to a First Approach of a Dynamic Formulation of Macromolecular Biosynthesis

The Coris in Post-World War I Europe

The Coris in the U.S.A.

Research at Washington University, School of Medicine

The Discovery of Cori-Ester and the Concept of Phosphorolysis

Polysaccharide Synthesis in Vitro

Isolation of Crystalline Muscle Phosphorylase Catalyzing Amylose Synthesis

Phosphorylases α and β and their Role in Metabolic Regulation

Regulation of Phosphorylase in Resting and Contracting Muscle

1947 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine

The Effect of Hormones on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Vitro

Personal Data from Later Years

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2. The Discovery of Sugar Nucleotides

The Discovery of Sugar Nucleotides

1948-49 Glucose Diphosphate

1950 UDPG

1951 UDP-Galactose

1952 UDP-Acetylglucosamine

1953-55 UDP-Glucuronic Acid

1953 Biosynthesis of Disaccarides

Final Remarks

References

Chapter 3. The Road to Ion-Coupled Membrane Processes

Washington College

Interim

Harvard

A Year with Fritz Lipmann

A Decade with Carl Cori

Hexokinase

Metabolite Regulation of Glucolysis

A Regulatory Site for Glucose-6-Phosphate

Membrane Transport

Toward the Mechanism of Glucose Active Transport

Fall of the Phosphorylation-Dephosphorylation Hypothesis

Detour

A Group Transfer Reaction with Glucose is Not the Mechanism

Energy Transduction is at the Brush-Border Membrane

The Idea of Na+-Coupling

The First Model, Convective-Coupling

Coupling by Co-Transport

Aftermath

Epilogue

References

Chapter 4. From Fructose to Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphate with a Detour through Lysosomes and Glycogen

As a Medical Student, I Participated in the Rediscovery Of Glucagon

How the Agglutination of Microsomes at pH5 Opened the Way to Several Discoveries

The Metabolism of Fructose in the Liver

The ATP-Magnesium Complex

The Publication of the Sorbitol Pathway was Delayed by Thermodynamica Considerations

A Call from a Paediatrician Introduced Me Into Glycogen Storage Disease

The First Lysosomal Disease was Discovered Because of the Complexity of the Reaction Catalysed by Amylo-l,6-Glucosidase

The Concept of Inborn Lysosomal Disease is a Logical Deduction Made from My Observations in Type II Glycogenosis

It Took 10 Years to have the Concept of Inborn Lysosomal Diseases Accepted

The Hepatic Threshold to Glucose

Fructose Revisited with a Glance to Primary Gout

The Futile Cycles and the Discovery of Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphate

The Other Face of the Story

References

Chapter 5. Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947)

Character and Outlook

Education and Early Employment

Establishment of Biochemistry in Cambridge

Research

Purines and Pterins

Proteins

Vitamins

Muscular Contraction

Glutathione

Some Biographical Points

References

Chapter 6. A Short Autobiography

The War 1917-1919

Cambridge

Concept of Active Centers as a Possible Explanation of Enzyme Action

The Effects of Malonic Acid and Substituted Malonic Acids on Bacterial Dehydrogenases

Cardiff

Rothamsted Experimental Station

Montreal

Vancouver

References

Chapter 7. A Biochemist's Approach to Autopharmacology

Introduction

Early influences

Medical Studies and the Role of Biochemistry

The Status of Biochemistry as an Academic Subject

Biochemistry in Dahlem and Heidelberg

England in the Nineteen-Twenties and -Thirties

Humoral Transmission and the Catecholamines

Amine oxidases

Biogenesis of Adrenaline

Intracellular Localization of the Catecholamines

On Methods

Conclusions: The Amine-Forming Cells

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8. The Svedberg and Arne Tiselius. The Early Development of Modern Protein Chemistry at Uppsala

The Svedberg

The Optical Centrifuge

The First Ultracentrifuge

The High-Speed Oil-Turbine Ultracentrifuge

Svedberg's Molecular Weight Hypothesis

Arne Tiselius

Further Development of the High-Speed Ultracentrifuge

Further Protein Studies

Serum and Serum Proteins

The Separation Cell

Ultracentrifuges to Go Abroad

The Later Periods In Svedberg's Life

Chromatography of Colourless Substances

The Two Personalities

In Retrospect

References

Chapter 9. Survey of a French Biochemist's Life

My Grandparents and my Parents

High School and University Studies

First Contact with Biochemistry and Research

My Return to Lyon and World War II

Life in Marseille (Act I)

Installation

Chemistry and Physiochemistry of Lipids

Construction of Our First Institue at the University

Life in Marseille (Act II)

Interlude in Paris

Creation of a Second Research Center (C.N.R.S.)

Proteolytic Enzymes and Zymogens (Second Period)

Bovine Procarboxypeptidase

The Lipase-Colipase System (Second Period)

Miscellaneous

Chapter 10. From α-Corticotropin through β-Lipotropin to β-Endorphin

Hormone Research Laboratory

Chemical Messengers

α-Corticotropin (ACTH)

Peptide Synthesis

Lipotropins

β-Endorphin

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 11. A.N. Bach, Founder of the Soviet School of Biochemistry

Short Biography

Research

References

Chapter 12. Sergei E. Severin: Life and Scientific Activity

An Autobiographical Review

References

Name Index

Description

Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry: Personal Recollections, I presents selected topics in the history of biochemistry based on the authors' personal recollections. These topics range from the isolation of Cori ester and the discovery of sugar nucleotides to the work of Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947). Ion-coupled membrane processes are also discussed, along with fructose and fructose-2,6-bisphosphateas well as lysosomes and glycogen.

Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with the discovery of Cori ester and the concept of phosphorolysis before turning to the discovery of sugar nucleotides and research on ion-coupled membrane processes. The reader is then introduced to studies of fructose, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, lysosomes, and glycogen; the contributions of Frederick Gowland Hopkins in biochemistry; and a short autobiography of Juda Hirsch Quastel, with emphasis on his research work on the concept of active centers as a possible explanation of enzyme action and his investigation of the effects of malonic acid and substituted malonic acids on bacterial dehydrogenases. The remaining chapters focus on a biochemist's approach to autopharmacology; the early development of modern protein chemistry in Uppsala, Sweden; and the biographies of two Russian scientists, A. N. Bach and Sergei E. Severin.

This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in the field of biochemistry.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780444598202

About the Editors

G. Semenza Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Swiss Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zürich, Switzerland