Seismic Risk and Engineering Decisions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444414946, 9780444601445

Seismic Risk and Engineering Decisions

1st Edition

Editors: Cinna Lomnitz
eBook ISBN: 9780444601445
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 425
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Seismic Risk and Engineering Decisions attempts to bridge the gap in decision making between earthquake characteristics and structural behavior. The book begins by providing the background on earthquake generation and characteristics. It reviews the present state of matters in seismicity assessment and treats uncertainties explicitly. The impact of earthquakes on large bodies of water and structures is also discussed. These discussions set the stage for the final part of the book, which deals with the principles and implications of seismic design decision analysis. The book also delves into the selection of instruments for seismological research and engineering applications, with emphasis on widely used conventional seismological equipment.
This book is intended to help experienced consulting engineers in assessing seismic risk and making rational decisions when locating and designing important engineering works and when drafting building codes and land use regulations. It will also provide advanced students of engineering with bases for benefiting from his future experience.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Earthquakes and Earthquake Prediction

2.1 The earthquake process

2.2 Models of the earthquake process

2.2.1 An earthquake mechanism: Reid's theory

2.2.2 Plate tectonics

2.2.3 Stochastic models for large earthquakes

2.3 The search for earthquake predictors

2.3.1 Earthquakes at plate boundaries: seismic gaps

2.3.2 Earthquake precursors: foreshocks

2.3.3 Monitoring crustal movements

2.3.4 Premonitory changes in seismic velocities

2.3.5 Other premonitory effects: the dilatancy model

2.3.6 Elastic and viscoelastic modeling of tectonic plates


Chapter 3 Geological Criteria for Evaluating Seismicity

3.1 Introduction

3.2 California

3.3 Turkey

3.4 Japan

3.5 Philippines

3.6 China

3.7 Thrust faults

3.8 Conclusions



Chapter 4 Soil Dynamics: Behavior Including Liquefaction

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Nature of soils: Phases and stresses

4.1.2 Drainage conditions in earthquake problems

4.1.3 Independent variables and test conditions in soil dynamics

4.1.4 Stable and unstable soil conditions

4.2 Stress—strain relationship under stable conditions

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Shear modulus for small-amplitude vibration

4.2.3 Internal damping

4.2.4 Stress—strain relationships in large-amplitude cyclic deformation

4.2.5 Strength under cyclic loading

4.3 Local amplification

4.3.1 Nature of the phenomenon. Problems of interpretation

4.3.2 Analytical models

4.3.3 Effects of weak interbedded layers

4.3.4 Modification of design spectra according to soil profile

4.4 Compaction and loss of strength

4.4.1 Introductory remarks

4.4.2 Volume change under vibration

4.4.3 Loss of strength of loose saturated sands and soft cohesive soils

4.4.4 Cyclic mobility of cohesionless soils in laboratory tests

4.4.5 Effects of permeability, drainage path and boundary conditions

4.4.6 Evaluation of liquefaction and cyclic mobility potentials

4.4.7 Loss of strength and fatigue effects in cohesive soils

4.5 Soil exploration

4.5.1 Considerations on field exploration programs

4.5.2 Exploration methods


Chapter 5 The Physics of Earthquake Strong Motion

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Physical parameters of the earthquake source

5.2.1 The elastic rebound mechanism

5.2.2 Point source theory

5.2.3 Far-field approximation

5.2.4 Far-field radiation from a double-couple point source

5.2.5 Seismic moment and fault slip

5.2.6 Energy and stress

5.2.7 Frictional heat generation and seismic efficiency

5.2.8 Stress drop, fault displacement, and source dimension

5.2.9 Effective accelerating stress

5.3 Earthquake modeling

5.3.1 Instantaneous stress pulse model

5.3.2 Crack tip stress singularity

5.3.3 Focussing of energy by rupture propagation

5.3.4 Approximate solutions to the dynamic problem of propagating ruptures

5.3.5 Foam-rubber model

5.3.6 Geometrical and boundary-condition effects

5.3.7 Complexity, scattering and attenuation effects

5.4 Conclusion — Estimates of maximum probable near-source ground motion



Chapter 6 Seismicity

6.1 On seismicity models

6.2 Intensity attenuation

6.2.1 Intensity attenuation on firm ground

6.3 Local seismicity

6.3.1 Magnitude-recurrence expressions

6.3.2 Variation with depth

6.3.3 Stochastic models of earthquake occurrence

6.3.4 Influence of the seismicity models on seismic risk

6.4 Assessment of local seismicity

6.4.1 Bayesian estimation of seismicity

6.5 Regional seismicity

6.5.1 Intensity-recurrence curves

6.5.2 Seismic probability maps

6.5.3 Microzoning


Chapter 7 Tsunamis

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Some data

7.1.2 Relationships among earthquake magnitudes, aftershock areas, tectonic displacements and tsunami damage

7.1.3 Landslide and subaqueous slide-generated tsunamis

7.2 Theory of the generation of tsunamis

7.2.1 Initial elevation or depression of the water surface

7.2.2 Vertical displacement of bottom: linear theory

7.2.3 Moving boundary: linear theory and hydraulic-model studies

7.2.4 Large high-speed horizontal motion of vertical plane boundary

7.2.5 Exact two-dimensional numerical solution for waves generated by a moving boundary

7.3 Tsunami sources and travel across the ocean

7.3.1 Sources

7.3.2 Directional characteristics

7.3.3 Travel across the ocean

7.4 Effects along the coast

7.4.1 Refraction

7.4.2 Wave trapping

7.4.3 Mach reflection

7.4.4 Resonance

7.4.5 Run-up and draw-down

7.5 Distribution functions

7.5.1 Entrance to San Francisco Bay, California, and other locations

7.5.2 Risk

7.6 Combined tide and tsunami probabilities


Chapter 8 Structural Response to Earthquakes

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Common ground-motion representations

8.2.1 Response spectra

8.2.2 Simulated earthquakes

8.2.3 Spectral-density functions

8.3 Random vibration-based prediction of response spectra

8.3.1 Stationary response variance

8.3.2 Transient response variance

8.3.3 Other pertinent response statistics

8.3.4 Prediction of maximum response

8.3.5 Compatibility of ground-motion representations

8.4 Multi-degree-of-freedom systems

8.4.1 Response-spectrum approach

8.4.2 Random vibration approach

8.4.3 Time-integration analysis

8.5 Light secondary systems

8.5.1 A response spectrum-based method

8.5.2 Random vibration approach

8.5.3 Time-integration method

8.6 Inelastic systems

8.6.1 Inelastic response spectra

8.6.2 A probabilistic model

8.6.3 Time-integration analysis



Chapter 9 Design

9.1 Analysis of total risk

9.2 Analysis of total risk: two-state systems

9.3 Analysis of total risk: multiple damage states

9.4 Analysis of total risk: distributed targets

9.5 Design for seismic risk: optimization of an individual project

9.6 Design for seismic risk: structural building codes

9.7 Design for seismic hazard: lifelines

9.7.1 Possible performance criteria

9.7.2 Modeling of lifeline systems


Chapter 10 Seismological Instrumentation

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Applications

10.3 Requirements: General

10.4 Peak-reading instruments

10.4.1 Peak ground motion

10.4.2 Peak structural motion

10.4.3 Peak structural deformations

10.5 Conventional seismographic systems — Design considerations

10.5.1 Basic design parameters

10.5.2 Bandwidth

10.5.3 Sensitivity

10.5.4 Response curve

10.5.5 Setting specifications

10.5.6 Peripheral considerations

10.6 Conventional seismographic systems — Component elements

10.6.1 General constraints

10.6.2 The complete seismograph

10.6.3 Seismometers

10.6.4 Signal conditioning

10.6.5 Recording

10.6.6 Timing

10.6.7 Telemetry

10.7 Calibration




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© Elsevier 1976
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Cinna Lomnitz