Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124200234, 9780124200296

Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration

1st Edition

Authors: Enwenode Onajite
eBook ISBN: 9780124200296
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124200234
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 17th October 2013
Page Count: 256
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Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration explains the fundamental concepts and skills used to acquire seismic data in the oil industry and the step-by-step techniques necessary to extract the sections that trap hydrocarbons as well as seismic data interpretation skills.

It enhances the ability to interpret seismic data and use that data for basin evaluation, structural modeling of a fault, reservoir characterization, rock physics analysis, field development, and production studies.

Understanding and interpreting seismic data is critical to oil and gas exploration companies. Arming young geoscientists with a reference that covers the key principles of seismic data analysis will enhance their job knowledge, skills and performance. A fundamental grasp of seismic data enhances employability and aids scientists in functioning effectively when working with seismic data in industry.

Key Features

  • Edited by a team of petroleum geoscientists with more than 30 years of experience in hydrocarbon exploration and data analysis at O&G companies.
  • More than 200 figures, photographs, and illustrations aid in the understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques used to acquire seismic data
  • Takes an easy-to-follow, step-by-step approach to presenting the techniques and skills used to extract the geologic sections from acquired seismic data.
  • Enhances the geoscientist’s effectiveness when using seismic data for field development and other exploration and production studies



Primary audience includes exploration geoscientists and seismologists in O&G. Secondary audience includes students at the upper undergraduate/graduate levels.

Table of Contents




Things to Learn When You Read ‘The Practical Handbook’

I: Basic Sedimentology and Seismic Data Acquisition

Chapter 1. Sedimentation and Oil/Gas Formation


Geologic Timescale of the Earth

Basin Formation

Rock Types

Oil and Gas Formation

Oil and Gas Traps

Chapter 2. Understanding Seismic Wave Propagation


Types of Seismic Waves

Wave Parameters

Seismic Reflection

Critical Angle

Reflection Coefficient

Transmission Coefficient

Understanding Convolution



Time Domain

Frequency Domain

Fourier Transform

Inverse Fourier Transform

Chapter 3. Understanding Seismic Exploration


Seismic Data Acquisition

Onshore Seismic Source

Onshore Seismic Recording

Seismic Trace

Fold of Coverage

How to Calculate Fold of Coverage

Marine Seismic Survey

Offshore Seismic Source

Marine Seismic Data Recording

Two-Dimensional Seismic Data (2D)

Problem with 2D Seismic Data

3D Seismic Data

Benefits of 3D Survey

4D (3D-Time Lapse) Seismic Surveys

Benefits of 4D Survey

Similarity Between the Baseline and the Monitor 3D Surveys

Difference Between the Baseline and the Monitor 3D Survey

Ocean Bottom Node (OBN)

Objective of OBN Survey

OBN Seismic Source


Uses of OBN Survey

Comparison Between OBN and OBC (3D Streamer Survey)

Recording Seismic Data on Tape

Recording Multi-Channel Seismic Data

Issues with Recording Multi-Channel Seismic Data

Difference Between Multiplexed and De-Multiplexed

Standard Way Seismic Data Is Stored

Chapter 4. Understanding Noise in Seismic Record


Types of Noise on Seismic Record

Random Noise

Source-Generated Noise

Further Reading

II: Detailed Seismic Data Processing Techniques

Chapter 5. Understanding the Detail Seismic Processing Techniques Used to Convert the Acquired Seismic Data into the Geologic Section of the Earth


What is Seismic Data Processing


Observer Log

Spherical Divergence

Automatic Gain Control (AGC)

Refraction Statics

Statics Correction

Datum and Floating Datum

Noise Attenuation

Trace Editing

Polarity Reversal

Chapter 6. Understanding CMP Binning and Sorting


CMP Binning


How Data in a Seismic Line Are Sorted

Chapter 7. Understanding Deconvolution


Deconvolution Process

Different Kinds of Wavelet Generated by Seismic Sources

Minimum-Phase Wavelet

Zero-Phase Wavelet

Mixed-Phase Wavelet

How to Estimate the Source Wavelet Use for Deconvolution

Inverse Filter

Parameters That Control Deconvolution

Types of Deconvolution

Chapter 8. Understanding Sample Data


Sample Data

Sample Periods/Rate

Frequencies Content of Seismic Data at Various Sample Periods


Nyquist Frequency

Resampled Seismic Data

Seismic Bandwidth

When Are the Acquired Seismic Data Resampled in the Processing Sequence?


Let’s Define Some Important Concept Relating to Filtering

Spatial Resampling

Chapter 9. Understanding NMO, Velocity Analysis DMO, and Stacking


Normal Move-Out

How to Determine the Magnitude of Correction Required to Flatten the Hyperbolic Event

NMO Correction

Dynamic Correction

NMO Stretch

Different Kinds of Seismic Velocities

The Dix Formula

Velocity Analysis

Potential Problems in Velocity Picking

Quality Control of Picked Velocities

Velocity Field

DIP Move-Out

Super Gathering


CMP/CDP Stacking

Different Stacking Methods

Chapter 10. Understanding Multiple Reflections


Characteristics of Multiple Reflections

Problems Cause by Multiples

De-Multiple Technique

FK De-Multiple

Parabolic Transform De-Multiple

Chapter 11. Understanding Residual Statics


Residual Statics Correction

How to Build a Pilot Trace Section

Chapter 12. Understanding Seismic Migration


Migration Velocity

Understanding Geologic Structures on Seismic Sections

Time Migration

Depth Migration

Difference Between Time and Depth Migrations

Pre-Stack Migration

Post-Stack Migration

Comparison Between Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Migrations

Final Filter Applied to Seismic Data

Further Reading

III: Seismic Data Interpretation Methodology

Chapter 13. Understanding Seismic Interpretation Methodology


Objective of Seismic Data Interpretation

Understanding the Seismic Data

Data Set Used for Seismic Interpretation

Comparison between Seismic and Well Data

Well Log Correlation

Well-to-Seismic Tie

Synthetic Seismogram

Understanding Velocity

Time-to-Depth Conversion Technique

Fault Picking

Fault Slice

Seismic Horizon Interpretation and Mapping

What Is a Horizon?

Seismic Horizon Mapping

How to Generate Time Structure Map

Depth Conversion

Chapter 14. Understanding Reflection Coefficient


Reflection Coefficient at Normal Incidence

Reflection Coefficient at an Angle

Poisson’s Ratio

Understanding Seismic Amplitude

Reservoir Impedance Contrast and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators

Propagating Seismic Velocity Values in Media

Further Reading



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About the Author

Enwenode Onajite

Enwenode Onajite, author of ‘Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration’. Formerly a research reservoir geophysicist with Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria limited (SPDC). He is now an independent research reservoir geophysicist and is available for opportunities in the oil and gas industry. He is an Associate member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG).

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent Research Reservoir Geophysicist, Associate Member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and Member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Nigeria


"…the book probably belongs on every beginning geophysical student’s bookshelf or at least in the department library...readers will gain an appreciation for the factors that might limit the accuracy of a seismic interpretation."--The Leading Edge, January 2015

“This book was recommended by my professor this semester for the course in Engineering and Exploration Geophysics and I must say - This is the best book I’ve seen around. The book talks to the reader. A job well done”. -- Jubril Davis, North Carolina State University, USA

"As far as exploration geophysics is concerned, it’s one of the best books I read in my life. The book covers in a very simple comprehensive manner, all geophysicist should keep in his library for reference. Expecting similar type of books in the future.” -- Vishnu Rajanbabu, Sr.Geophysicist/Seismic Interpreter at Reliance BP Exploration & Production Ltd, India

“This book would be a great benefit for all those concerned with seismic data analysis”. -- Mourad Wassef, CEO at Petromina Energy, Egypt