Secondary Xylem Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128021859, 9780128025291

Secondary Xylem Biology

1st Edition

Origins, Functions, and Applications

Authors: Yoon Soo Kim Ryo Funada Adya,P, Singh
eBook ISBN: 9780128025291
Paperback ISBN: 9780128021859
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th January 2016
Page Count: 416
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Secondary Xylem Biology: Origins, Functions, and Applications provides readers with many lenses from which to understand the whole scope and breadth of secondary xylem. The book builds on a basic comprehension of xylem structure and development before delving into other important issues such as fungal and bacterial degradation and biofuel conversion.

Chapters are written by recognized experts who have in-depth knowledge of their specific areas of expertise. It is a single information source containing high quality content, information, and knowledge related to the understanding of biology in woody plants and their applications.

Key Features

  • Offers an in-depth understanding of biology in woody plants
  • Includes topics such as abiotic stresses on secondary xylem formation, fungal degradation of cell walls, and secondary xylem for bioconversion
  • Progresses from basic details of wood structure, to dynamics of wood formation, to degradation


Grad students, postdocs, researchers in plant science, wood science and forestry
Secondary audience: researchers in biomaterials sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part I: Development of Secondary Xylem
    • Chapter 1: The Vascular Cambium of Trees and its Involvement in Defining Xylem Anatomy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction and outline
      • Seasonal variation of cambial activity
      • Mechanical injury of the cambium and its restoration
      • Microscopic xylem features defined by the cambium
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Xylogenesis in Trees: From Cambial Cell Division to Cell Death
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Changes from cambial dormancy to activity
      • Formation of cell wall
      • Formation of modified structure
      • Cell death
      • Future prospectives
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 3: Xylogenesis and Moisture Stress
      • Abstract
      • Introduction (plants and water)
      • The xylogenetic process
      • Timings of xylogenesis and water deficit
      • Xylem growth and moisture stress
      • Quantification of moisture availability
      • Further research
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 4: Abiotic Stresses on Secondary Xylem Formation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Effects of nutrient deficiency on wood formation
      • Influence of drought stress
      • Salinity-induced changes of wood formation
      • High and low temperature
      • Effects of rising ozone levels on diameter growth of trees
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 5: Flexure Wood: Mechanical Stress Induced Secondary Xylem Formation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Reaction wood
      • Wulstholz or “beadwood”
      • Flexure wood
      • Early genetic evaluation for wood quality and wind firmness
      • Forest products containing flexure wood
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Reaction Wood
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Compression wood
      • Tension wood
  • Part II: Function and Pathogen Resistance of Secondary Xylem
    • Chapter 7: Bordered Pit Structure and Cavitation Resistance in Woody Plants
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Structure of bordered pit membranes
      • Cavitation resistance
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 8: Fungal Degradation of Wood Cell Walls
      • Abstract
      • General background
      • Blue stain (sapstain) and mold fungi on wood
      • True wood-degrading fungi
      • Fungal enzymatic systems involved in wood decay
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 9: Bacterial Degradation of Wood
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Wood-degrading bacteria and degradation patterns
      • Slime
      • Colonization
      • Cell wall degradation
      • Tunneling bacteria and tunneling type degradation
      • Erosion bacteria and erosion type degradation
      • Conclusions
      • Potential biotechnological applications of wood-degrading bacteria
      • Cellulolytic bacteria
      • Pit membrane degrading bacteria
      • Rumen bacteria
  • Part III: Economic Application of Secondary Xylem
    • Chapter 10: Genetic Engineering for Secondary Xylem Modification: Unraveling the Genetic Regulation of Wood Formation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Secondary growth and wood formation
      • Reaction wood
      • Seasonal regulation of cambial growth
      • Genetic control of secondary xylem (i.e., wood) formation
      • Secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation
      • Genetic regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis
      • Genetic modification of wood property
    • Chapter 11: Secondary Xylem for Bioconversion
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Bioconversion of woody biomass by chemical procedures
      • Bioconversion of woody biomass
      • Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 12: Wood as Cultural Heritage Material and its Deterioration by Biotic and Abiotic Agents
      • Abstract
      • Wooden cultural heritages and their property diagnosis
      • Physical and chemical characteristics of WCH
      • Abiotic agents in the deterioration of moveable and immoveable WCH
      • Biotic agents in the deterioration of moveable and immoveable WCH
      • Some remarks on the conservation of WCH
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 13: Biomaterial Wood: Wood-Based and Bioinspired Materials
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Wood cell wall assembly characterization
      • Recent advances in wood cell and cell wall modification
      • Wood functionalization toward actuation
      • Conclusions and outlook
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 14: Biological, Anatomical, and Chemical Characteristics of Bamboo
      • Abstract
      • Biological characteristics of bamboo
      • Anatomical characteristics of bamboo culm
      • Chemical characteristics of bamboo
      • The key scientific research in the future
  • Part IV: Advanced Techniques for Studying Secondary Xylem
    • Chapter 15: Microscope Techniques for Understanding Wood Cell Structure and Biodegradation
      • Abstract
      • General background: microscope analysis of wood structure and biodegradation
      • Sample preparation for microscopy
      • Scanning electron microscopy of wood
      • Transmission electron microscopy (conventional TEM)
      • Rapid freezing approaches
      • Application of analytical techniques (SEM-EDX, TEM-EDX) for understanding wood structure and wood degradation
      • Additional techniques for studying wood cell wall structure and biodegradation
    • Chapter 16: Rapid Freezing and Immunocytochemistry Provide New Information on Cell Wall Formation in Woody Plants
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Rapid freezing provides new information on cell wall formation in woody plants
      • Localization of enzymes involved in cell wall formation revealed by immunocytochemistry
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 17: Distribution of Cell Wall Components by TOF-SIMS
      • Abstract
      • Current situation of microscopic analyses
      • General aspects of TOF-SIMS
      • Plant analyses by TOF-SIMS
      • Conclusions and prospects
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2016
Academic Press
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About the Author

Yoon Soo Kim

Chonnam National University, South Korea

Affiliations and Expertise

Chonnam National University, South Korea

Ryo Funada

Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan

Affiliations and Expertise

Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan

Adya,P, Singh

Emeritus Scientist, Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute), New Zealand

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Scientist, Scion (New Zealand Forest Research Institute), New Zealand


"...better and more practical than an umbrella textbook…definitely recommended because it covers so much recent literature and discusses topics otherwise not covered in book form." --The Botanical Review

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