Seawater: Its Composition, Properties and Behaviour

Seawater: Its Composition, Properties and Behaviour

Prepared by an Open University Course Team

2nd Edition - January 1, 1989

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  • Authors: John Wright, Angela Colling
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257075

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Seawater: Its Composition, Properties and Behaviour provides a comprehensive introduction to marine science. This book is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the special properties of water and the role of the oceans in the hydrological cycle. The distribution of temperature and salinity in the oceans and their combined influence on density, stability, and vertical water movements are discussed in Chapters 2 to 4. The fifth chapter describes the behavior of light and sound in seawater and provides examples of the application of acoustics to oceanography. Chapter 6 examines the composition and behavior of the dissolved constituents of seawater, covering minor and trace constituents and major ions, as well as dissolved gases and biologically important nutrients. Residence times, speciation, and carbonate equilibria are also deliberated. The last chapter provides a short review of ideas about the history of seawater, involvement of the oceans in global cycles, and their relationship to climatic change. This publication is beneficial to oceanographers and marine biologists, including students that are interested in marine science.

Table of Contents

  • About this Volume

    About this Series

    Chapter 1 Water, Air and Ice

    1.1 The Special Properties of Water

    1.1.1 The Effect of Dissolved Salts

    1.2 The Hydrological Cycle

    1.2.1 Water in the Atmosphere

    1.2.2 Ice in the Oceans

    1.3 Summary of Chapter 1

    Chapter 2 Temperature in the Oceans

    2.1 Solar Radiation

    2.2 Distribution of Surface Temperatures

    2.2.1 The Transfer of Heat and Water Across the Air-Sea Interface

    2.3 Distribution of Temperature with Depth

    2.4 Energy from the Thermocline - A Brief Digression

    2.5 Temperature Distribution and Water Movement

    2.6 Summary of Chapter 2

    Chapter 3 Salinity in the Oceans

    3.1 Constancy of Composition

    3.1.1 Changes Due to Local Conditions

    3.1.2 Salts from Seawater

    3.2 Variations in Salinity

    3.2.1 Distribution of Salinity with Depth

    3.2.2 Distribution of Surface Salinity

    3.3 The Measurement of Salinity

    3.3.1 Chemical Methods of Salinity Measurement

    3.3.2 Physical Methods of Salinity Measurement

    3.3.3 The Formal Definition of Salinity

    3.4 Summary of Chapter 3

    Chapter 4 Density and Pressure in the Oceans

    4.1 Water Masses

    4.2 Depth (Pressure), Density and Temperature

    4.2.1 Adiabatic Temperature Changes

    4.3 T-S Diagrams

    4.3.1 Using σ1

    4.3.2 σθ and Vertical Stability

    4.3.3 The Use of T-S Diagrams

    4.3.4 Conservative and Non-Conservative Properties

    4.4 Mixing Processes in the Oceans

    4.4.1 Molecular and Turbulent Diffusion

    4.4.2 Stratification and Micro-Structure

    4.4.3 Fronts

    4.4.4 Eddies

    4.5 Summary of Chapter 4

    Chapter 5 Light and Sound in Seawater

    5.1 Underwater Light

    5.1.1 Illumination and Vision

    5.1.2 Underwater Visibility: Seeing and Being Seen

    5.1.3 Measurement

    5.1.4 Color in the Sea

    5.1.5 Electromagnetic Radiation and Remote Sensing of the Oceans

    5.2 Underwater Sound

    5.2.1 The Main Characteristics of Sound Waves in the Oceans

    5.2.2 The Speed of Sound: Refraction and Sound Channels

    5.2.3 Uses of Acoustic Energy in the Oceans

    5.3 Summary of Chapter 5

    Chapter 6 the Seawater Solution

    6.1 The Gross Chemical Composition of Seawater

    6.1.1 Classification of Dissolved Constituents

    6.1.2 The Nutrients

    6.1.3 Dissolved Gases

    6.1.4 Dissolved Gases as Tracers

    6.2 Sources and Sinks, or Why the Sea is Salt

    6.2.1 Comparison of Seawater with Other Natural Waters

    6.2.2 Seawater and River Water

    6.2.3 Origin of the Chloride

    6.2.4 The Sodium Balance

    6.2.5 Chemical Fluxes and Residence Times

    6.3 Chemical and Biological Reactions in Seawater

    6.3.1 Interactions between Dissolved Species

    6.3.2 The Carbonate System, Alkalinity and Control of Ph

    6.3.3 Non-Biological Controls on Minor and Trace Element Concentrations

    6.3.4 Biological Controls on Minor and Trace Element Concentrations

    6.3.5 Biological Activity as a Sink for Trace Elements

    6.4 Summary of Chapter 6

    Chapter 7 Seawater and the Global Cycle

    7.1 A Short History of Seawater

    7.1.1 The Special Case of Co2

    7.1.2 Climate and the Earth'S Orbit

    7.2 A Look Ahead

    7.3 Summary of Chapter 7

    Appendix: Conversions between Ph and [H°]

    Suggested Further Reading

    Answers and Comments to Questions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 172
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1995
  • Published: January 1, 1989
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257075

About the Authors

John Wright

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Director of Pathology, Baylor College of Dentistry-- A Member of the Texas A & M University System, Dallas, TX

Angela Colling

About the Editor

Gerry Bearman

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