Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122806001, 9780323157124

Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks

1st Edition

Editors: Joseph Geraci
eBook ISBN: 9780323157124
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1990
Page Count: 298
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Description

Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks summarizes the effects of spilled petroleum, or “oil”, on five groups of marine mammals, including seals, whales and dolphins, sea otters, polar bears, and manatees. It poses questions concerning the extent of oil spill effects on marine mammals; the vulnerability of each species; and the probable effects to humans, domestic animals, and laboratory animals. After an introduction to the composition and fate of petroleum and spill-treating agents in the marine environment, the book discusses the use of risk assessment and mathematical/computer models in evaluating the effects of oil in marine mammal populations. Chapters 3 to 11 examine the ecological perspectives, physiologic, and toxic effects of oil on five mammal groups. The effect of oil on their behavior and the detection and avoidance of oil spill are also discussed. With a strong focus on risk assessment, this book is ideal for petroleum chemists and technologists, marine biologists, and veterinary medicine researchers.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

1 Composition and Fate of Petroleum and Spill-Treating Agents in the Marine Environment

Introduction

Composition and Toxicity of Petroleum

Sources of Petroleum in the Marine Environment

Fate of Petroleum in the Marine Environment

Oil Dispersants

Other Methods of Treating Spills

Interactions between Petroleum and Marine Mammals

Effects of Oil Dispersants

Conclusion

References

2 Effects of Oil on Marine Mammal Populations: Model Simulations

Introduction

Marine Mammals in the Southern California Bight

Northern Fur Seals in the Bering Sea

Bowhead and Gray Whales in Alaskan Waters

Sea Otters in California

Summary

References

3 Pinnipeds and Oil: Ecologie Perspectives

Introduction

Life Histories

Habitat Use

Social Organization and Behavior

Demography

References

4 Physiologic and Toxic Effects on Pinnipeds

Historical Notes

Detection and Avoidance of Oil

Behavioral Effects

Surface Contact

Oil Ingestion

Inhalation

Summary

References

5 Cetaceans and Oil: Ecologie Perspectives

Introduction

Life Histories

Habitat

Social Organization and Behavior

Summarizing the Risk

References

6 Physiologic and Toxic Effects on Cetaceans

Historical Notes

Detection and Avoidance

Surface Contact

Inhalation

Baleen Fouling Ingestion and Accumulation

Summary

References

7 Sea Otters and Oil: Ecologie Perspectives

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Preferred Habitat

Site Fidelity and Movement Patterns

Reproduction

Social Organization and Reproductive Behavior

Trophic Levels and Feeding Habits

Metabolism and Thermorégulation

Summarizing the Risk

References

8 Physiologic and Toxic Effects on Sea Otters

Historical Perspective

Detection and Avoidance

Surface Fouling

Toxic Effects

Rehabilitating Fouled Otters

Summary

References

9 Polar Bears and Oil: Ecologie Perspectives

Introduction

Distribution

Life History

Exploration and Production Activities in Prime Habitats

Habitat Modification

Behavior

Summarizing the Risk

References

10 Physiologic and Toxic Effects on Polar Bears

Historical Notes

Detection and Avoidance

Surface Contact

Oil Ingestion

Summary

References

11 Oil Effects on Manatees: Evaluating the Risks

Introduction

Distribution and Abundance

Life History

Preferred Habitat, Seasonal Movements, and Migration

Habitat Use and Physiology

Historical Notes on the Effects of Oil

Presumed Effects of Oil

References

12 Summary and Conclusions

Appendix

Index








Details

No. of pages:
298
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323157124

About the Editor

Joseph Geraci