Scientific Perspectives of Tea Plant Horticulture and Productivity

Scientific Perspectives of Tea Plant Horticulture and Productivity

1st Edition - October 31, 2021

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  • Author: L. Manivel
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128234440
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236482

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Scientific Perspectives of Tea Plant Horticulture and Productivity is a complete, step-by-step guide on how to maximize tea plant growth, yield and quality. Chapters focus on the methods of cultivation, soil and water management, plant physiology, plant protection and weed control, problems from pollution and climate change, and eco-friendly remedial actions. This is an essential read for plant biologists and tea horticulturalists as the tea industry is struggling due to high production costs, changing climates and diminishing plant yields, with countries in Asia declaring the industry at ‘crisis point.’ Horticulturalists need solutions to problems with plant productivity, quality, stress management and eco-friendly cultivation practices. There have been several technological advances in the field and horticulturalists need guidance on how best to implement new technologies, hence the importance of this new resource.

Key Features

  • Written by a tea industry expert with almost 40 years’ of experience
  • Provides a practical guide on all aspects of tea cultivation, with step-by-step protocols
  • Includes plantation troubleshooting and other remedial actions


Plant horticulturalists, plant biology researchers

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter One. Botany origin and spread of tea cultivars
  • 1.1. Characteristics of the species (a list of Assam, Cambod, and Chinary tea bushes TV3, TV 7, TV 9, AV2, and P126)
  • 1.2. Germ plasm preservation of tea
  • 1.3. Statistics
  • 1.4. Excerpts of J. Thomas statistics, Kolkatta 2019 report, and UPASI Coonoor, planters Chronicle, August 2020
  • 1.5. Impact of pandemic on Indian tea
  • Chapter TWO. Method of cultivation: propagation and multiplication of tea
  • 2.1. Propagation methods
  • 2.2. Raising plants from seeds
  • 2.3. Grafting
  • 2.4. Maintenance of Seed Orchards (Biclonal seed baris)
  • 2.5. Organic cultivation/natural farming of tea seed Orchards: Guidelines
  • Chapter THREE. Management of young tea plantation in field
  • 3.1. Tea plant requirements
  • 3.2. Plant/cultivar
  • 3.3. Water requirements
  • 3.4. Land: terrain and climate on tea growing and productivity
  • 3.5. Young tea management
  • 3.6. Tipping and plucking
  • 3.7. Frame formation prune
  • 3.8. Schedule of operations for bringing up young tea
  • 3.9. Postplanting care
  • 3.10. Mature tea plantation management
  • Chapter FOUR. Mature tea (soil, water and shade) management
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Soil
  • 4.3. Water management
  • 4.4. Shade trees in tea plantations
  • 4.5. Role and benefits of these green vegetation
  • 4.6. Water conservation and management
  • 4.7. Importance of maintenance foliage: intricacies on production and cost-effective management
  • 4.8. Shade management in tea plantations
  • 4.9. Stress management
  • 4.10. Biotic stresses
  • Chapter FIVE. Pruning systems and crop productivity
  • 5.1. Normal pruning, rejuvenation pruning
  • 5.2. Bush architecture: pruning, tipping, and harvesting
  • Chapter SIX. Physiology of the tea plant
  • 6.1. Cultivar with varying harvest index
  • 6.2. Carbon metabolism: photosynthesis and assimilation
  • 6.3. Source-sink relationship
  • 6.4. Apical dominance
  • 6.5. Flushing behavior and hormone relationship
  • 6.6. Winter-bud-dormancy-hormone
  • 6.7. Starch build up in relation to flushing behavior and in-built mechanism in the canopy for sustenance
  • 6.8. Wind, hail, and flood in relation to physiology
  • 6.9. Stress management in plantations
  • 6.10. Secondary metabolites
  • 6.11. Remedial/restoration/palliative measures contemplated as scientific, financial, and sociological
  • Chapter Seven. Mineral nutrition in tea
  • 7.1. Essential nutrients
  • 7.2. Macronutrients
  • 7.3. Secondary nutrients
  • 7.4. Micronutrients
  • 7.5. Some of the salient points on the nutrition of tea
  • 7.6. Key symptoms of a few important micronutrients
  • 7.7. Nutrient management
  • 7.8. Salient points on nutrients management in tea plantations
  • Chapter EIGHT. Management of tea plantations: plant protection including weed control
  • 8.1. Principal causes for pests and diseases
  • 8.2. The principal pests and diseases of north and south India
  • 8.3. Integrative measures suggested for the important pest and diseases
  • Chapter NINE. Tea processing and quality improvement
  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Type of teas
  • 9.3. Cell constituents
  • 9.4. Black tea processing
  • 9.5. Innovative processing/manufacture
  • 9.6. Diversification value addition and marketing
  • Chapter TEN. Pollution of water, air, and toxic chemical elements
  • Chapter ELEVEN. Current problems and remedial measures required in tea plantations
  • 11.1. Present situations
  • 11.2. Major problems faced by tea plantations
  • Chapter Twelve. Priority areas of research for the preeminent position of Indian tea plantations
  • 12.1. Importance of the soil constituents, strengthening, and handling for sustainable productivity and cost-effective management
  • 12.2. Tail end crop and stress management practices for Assam tea: prophylactic and ameliorative measures
  • 12.3. Packages for improving crop during quality seasons second/autumn flushes regions: Assam, Darjeeling, Nuwareliya, and the world's best black teas
  • 12.4. Present situations/conditions of tea plantations, restoration measures, suggested with time frame
  • 12.5. Concluding remarks and suggestions/road map for the well-being of the tea industry of India
  • Chapter THIRTEEN. Case studies, field observations, and troubleshooting
  • 13.1. Introduction
  • 13.2. Current problems and probable solutions of tea plantations of North East India
  • 13.3. Drought amelioration during winter: Mackaibari TG, Kurseong, Darjeeling district
  • 13.4. Visit report of Boisahabi TE, Jorhat, Assam, February 20 and 21, 2019
  • 13.5. Technical discussion with field staff and executives-Halmari, Mokalbari dated Dec. 12th and 15th respectively
  • 13.6. Field proving of basic package of practices for sustainable productivity in tea plantations- HML-A
  • 13.7. A note on glyphosate (C3H8NO5P) on toxicity in plantations and remedial measures
  • 13.8. Research work done and contributions made as head plant physiology, Upasi Tri, during 1989–96
  • 13.9. Report of visit to Bukhial T. E. by Dr. L. Manivel, Ex-TRA. Plant physiologist
  • 13.10. Decline of Tuckda 383-Long View, Darjeeling
  • 13.11. Salient points on young tea management, Meisamari, Nigeria
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 31, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128234440
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236482

About the Author

L. Manivel

With over 40 years’ experience, Dr L. Manivel is a renowned expert in the tea industry. Dr Manivel began his career in academia as an assistant lecturer at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India, in 1967. In 1969 he began work as an assistant horticulturalist at the University of California, Davis, USA. Dr Manivel made the move to industry in 1989 by joining the Tocklaid Tea Research Association and UPASI Tea Research Institute, India, as a horticultural researcher. He served as a scientific consultant in tea, principally in India and Sri Lanka, over the last 20 years and has focused on diagnosing growth problems in the field and advising on cost-effective remedial measures. Dr Manivel published extensively in the 1990s (which is why despite his extensive academic background, he does not have a current h-index) and now has his own horticultural consultancy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Plant Physiologist, Tocklai Tea Research Institute and UPASI Tea Research Foundation, India

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