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Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750602372, 9781483162874

Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage

1st Edition

Proceedings of the European Symposium, Bologna, Italy, 13-16 June 1989

Editors: N.S. Baer C. Sabbioni A.I. Sors
eBook ISBN: 9781483162874
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 19th August 1991
Page Count: 1026
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Science, Technology and European Cultural Heritage is a collection of papers from the Proceedings of the European Symposium of the same title held in Bologna, Italy on June13-16, 1989. The papers discuss the critical issues related to the scientific and technical aspects of the protection and conservation of the cultural heritage of Europe. Participants of the symposium identify and describe the main research and development issues that are common to cultural heritage problems, and increase cooperation in these areas. Other papers examine the applicability of research and development through better matching with the real needs of conservators, restorers, policy makers, and the general public. The participants also discuss specific research and development directions for the future, including the provision of a scientific basis for European Community policies on environment and culture. One paper presents some of the scientific research done both in the field and laboratory of specific historical areas, monuments, indoor objects. As an example, archaeologists can use infrared thermal image analysis as an enhanced tool to detect buried archeological and historical sites. Another paper analyzes the chemical and physical properties of deteriorated stones in historical monuments in Castile-Leon. The collection can prove useful for archaeologists, historians, museum curators, and policy makers involved in national and cultural preservation.

Table of Contents


Opening Address: Manfredo Macioti

The Role of the International Scientific Community in the Protection of European Cultural Heritage

Sir John Kendrew


Overview Papers

The State of Europe's Architectural Heritage: A Personal View

Scientists and the Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Assessment and Management of Risks to Cultural Property

Environment and Microclimate

History of Air Pollution and Damage to the Cultural Heritage of European Cities

Atmospheric Deposition and its Measurement with Regard to Air Pollution Legislation to Protect Monuments

The Cultural Heritage: Causes of Damage

Methods for Assessing the Deterioration of Stone Monuments

Modern Micro-Analytical Techniques to Elucidate the Causes and Mechanisms of Damage to Cultural Property

Evaluating Damage and Accelerated Exposure and Field Studies: Modeling Techniques

Causes, Mechanisms and Measurement of Damage in Stone Monuments

Causes, Mechanisms and Measurement of Damage in Cultural Heritage Materials: The State of the Art: Concrete Structures

Causes, Mechanisms and Measurements of Damage to Mortars, Bricks and Renderings

Causes, Remedies and Research on the Degradation of Organic Materials in Relation to Conservation

Mural Paintings

Glass Objects: Causes, Mechanisms and Measurements of Damage

Ancient Metal Objects in Outdoor Exposure: Causes, Mechanisms and Measurements of Damage

The Establishment and Use of Damage Functions

The Application ofSscience and Technology to Conservation Practice

Development and Application of New Technologies, Conservation Processes and Materials: An Industrial Viewpoint

The Evaluation of Conservation Materials

The Application of Laboratory Processes and Studies to Real Structures

Trends in the Application of Analysis in the Museum Laboratory

Imaging Techniques: Results and Prospects

Soil as a Medium of Preservation for Artefacts

Case Studies

Indoor and Outdoor Microclimate Case Studies: The Trajan Column and Sistine Chapel

Weathering and Conservation Studies at Wells Cathedral, England

The Restoration of the Marcus Aurelius

Conservation of Archaelogical Sites: The Greek Monuments

Collaboration in the Conservation of the Parthenon

In Situ Conservation of Archaelogical Sites in Turkey, with Particular Reference to the Temple of Rome and Augustus, Ankara

The Book of Kells: The Exhibition and Transport of an Ancient Manuscript

Poster Papers

A. Environmental Monitoring, Deposition; Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

Determination of Oxalic Acid in Air by Means of Diffusion Tubes

About a C14 Dating Laboratory for Environmental Measurements

The Ratio Between the Dry Deposition of Sulfur by Aerosol and by Gas on Vertical Stone Surfaces

Lichens on Monuments: Environmental Bioindicators

Environmental Air Pollution Studies Using Oleander Plants as a Biological Monitor

Getty Conservation Institute Environmental Research Program

An Example of Recovery and Exhibition in the Egyptian Museum of Turin: The Tomb of the Unknown Owners (2400 B.C.)

A Palaeoecological Research Project in Southeast of Iberian Peninsula

B. Microclimate and Damage

Climate and Coastline Variations in Historical Times

Eco-Archaeometry in Egypt

Geographie, Climatic, and Environmental Factors which Influence the Mechanisms of Weathering of the Stone used in the Main Monuments of the City of Alicante, Spain

A Continuous Monitor for Time of Wetness (TOW) Measurements in the Micro-Environment

Influences of Environmental Parameters Upon the Deterioration of 'Caen Limestone' Used as a Building Material

Methodology for Microclimate Analysis and Conditioning System Design in Historical Buildings

Conservative Control of an Archaeological Excavation: The Tomb of 'Demoni Azzurri' of Tarquinia

C. Mechanisms of Environmental Damage: Natural Weathering, Air Pollution Effects and Biological Mechanisms

Weathering of Crystalline Marble: New Results

Deterioration of Historic Brick Buildings

Nitric Acid and Nitrates in the Atmosphere of Athens and their Effects on Pentelic Marble

Attack of Atmospheric Pollution (Sulfur Compounds) on Interior Building Stones

Field Studies of Stone Decay in the UK

Building Stone Decay in a 'clean' Environment: Western Northern Ireland

Agents and forms of Weathering in Granitic Rocks Used in Monuments

Marble Deterioration in the Urban Atmosphere

Gypsum Crust Formation and 'Stratigraphy' in Weathered Building Limestones: A SEM Study of Stone Decay in the UK

Atmospheric Alumino-Silicate Microspherules Inside the Black Crust of Altered Limestone at Fontevraud, Abbey, France

Contribution of Calcium from Limestone and Mortar to the Decay of Granite Walling

Black Crusts as Air Pollution Indicators

The effects of Air Pollution on Historic Buildings and Monuments: A Collaborative Programme of Research

Degradation of Coupled Stones by Artificial Acid Rain Solution

Laboratory Exposure Chamber Studies: Pollutant and Acid Rain Preservation Rates and Stone Degradation

Microbial Communities Involved in the Weathering of Three Historic Buildings in Northern Germany

The Impact of Microorganisms - Especially Nitric Acid Producing Bacteria - on the Deterioration of Natural Stones

On the Influence of Restoration Activities on Microbial Biodeterioration of Mural Paintings

Procedures and Methods for the Assessment of Microbiological Influences on Stone Decay

Root Penetration of Solid Porous Medium

Weeds Settling in Spanish Cathedrals (Salamanca, Seville and Toledo)

Ultrastructural Investigations on Algal Species Deteriorating Roman Frescoes

Destruction of the Sites and Mural Paintings of Cappadocia: Natural and Human Causes

Fungal Colonization of the Salamanca Cathedral Sandstones: Some patterns of Degradation

Heterotrophic Bacteria: Potent Allies of the Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts on Weathering Building Stones and Monuments

D. Measurement and Definition of Envronmental Damage: Non-Destructive Methods, Modern Imaging Methodologies, Analytical Techniques

Characterization of Organic Compounds in Weathered Stones

Sulfated Crusts: A Microscopic, Inorganic and Organic Analysis

Baumberger Kalksandstein: A mineralogie, Petrographie and Petrophysical Characterization of a Prominent Building and Stone Cutting Material in North West Germany

Time Series Analysis of Anions and Cations in Runoff from Daily Washed and Unwashed New Limestone Catchments at Trinity College, Dublin during June 1988

Environmental Auditing and Measurement Methodologies in Museums

Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Procedure to Evaluate in Situ the Relative Deterioration of Monumental Stones: Preliminary Results

Data Base and Image Processing in Cultural Heritage: Two Userfriendly Applications

Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (PyGc) Applied to the Study of Natural Waxes in Art and Archaeology

A Colour Analysis on the Brancacci Chapel Frescoes

A Methodology for Epidemiological Studies of Deterioration in Historic Stone Buildings

Use of Thermography as an Investigatory Method in Conservation Research: Outline of Problems

Study of Element Profiles in Artificially Weathered Stone Samples by Proton-Microprobe Analysis

A Scanning Device for IR Relectography

A Multi-Gamma Attenuation Technique for the Quantitative Characterization of Archaelogical Metal Alloys

Non-Destructive Testing for Soundness of Stone Architectural Pieces

Holographic Contouring Technique for Marble Erosion Measurements

Tracing of Archaeological Marbles by Cathodoluminescence

Moisture Transport in Porous Building Materials

Ultrasonic Velocity and Humidity in Monumental Stones

Infrared Spectroscopy as a Complementary Technique to Identify Inorganic Salts in Ancient Deteriorated Mortars, Grouts and Plasters

Brunselleschi Dome in S. Maria del Fiore- Florence: Correlation Between the Theoretical Direct Solar Radiation and the Thermal Behavior Obtained Through Thermographie Survery

Advanced Electrochemical Monitoring of Underside Corrosion of Sheet Lead Roof Coverings

E. Environmental Protection, Scientific Principles of Conservation, Restoration and Maintenance

Optimum Conservation Conditions in Museums: Lighting and Climate

Optimal Environmental Conditions in Museums

Effects of Mould Growth on Serena Stone Samples Untreated and Treated with Resin

Biological Degradation of Archival Documents: Prevention and Study

Polyvinyl Acetate in the Conservation of Wall Paintings

The Detection and Destruction of Basidiomycetes in the Timber of Artefacts of Historical or Archaelogical Interest

Surface Water Repellants: Unification of Tests Methods

A New Chemical and Engineering Approach for Development and Optimization of Stone Protecting Materials

The Use of Gamma Radiation for Conservation Purposes

The Restoration of the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia (Spain): Seventeen Years After

Studies on the Relationship Between Water Absorption and Crystallisation Test for Impregnated Stone Materials

Studies of the Use of Preservative Treatments on Historic Buildings

Architectural Detail, Weathering and Stone Decay

Local Natural Substitutes for Weathered Historical Building Stones in Flanders

Stone Deterioration Problems Caused by Previous Restorations at the Citadel of Lindos (Rhodes)

Preservation of Stained Glass Windows: New Materials and Techniques

Traditional Methods for Surface Treatment of Villamayor Sandstone Used in Historical Buildings in Salamanca (Spain)

Research on Cleaning Methods Applied to Historical Stonevmonuments

An objective Assessment of Stone Conservation Using Krypton 85 Labelling

Study of the Weathering of Bare and Treated Limestones in Ambient Atmospheric Conditions

Conservation of Crystalline Marble with the Acrylic-Total-Impregnation Process

The Restoration of the Wooden Painted Ceiling in the 'Confrraternita del Rosario' - S. S. Filippo and Giacomo Church - Ospedaletto d'Alpinolo (AV)

Fields of Action and Goals of the Building Recovery Research Project Recently Launched by CNR's Progetto Finalizzato Edilizia

Ultrasound Surveys and Static Restoration of the Columns of S. Tommaso Apostolo Church in Acquanegra sul Chiese (Prov. of Mantova)

Preservation of Canvas Paintings: Structural Solutions in Relation to Environmental Changes

High Technology Ceramic Anchorages for Wall Mosaics Presenting Areas of Detachment

Equiping and Conservation in Museums, Libraries and Archives: Surveys and Feasibility Studies

Equilibrium Moisture Content and Dynamic Behavior of Some Types of Silica Gel

Betaradiography: Non-Destructive Technique for Watermark Reproduction

The Restoration of the Polychromed Sculptures on the South Portal of the Church of Notre Dame du Fort - Etampes

Restoration of the 'Vasca del Pincio' in Rome

The Knowledge of Ancient Buildings: Conceptual Instruments and Practical Methods

Research to Find the Most Suitable System of Illumination for the Preservation of the Scrovegni Chapel, the Battistero of Parma and the Sistine Chapel

Funerary Monument of Giovanni and Pietro dé Medici by Andrea del Verrocchio: Cleaning of Stone Surfaces

The Ancient Bronze Statuettes in the Estense collection in Modena (Italy): From Analyses to Restoration

Preservation Problems: Visitors and Deterioration on the Painted Etruscan Tomb

Microbiological Investigations on the Conservation State of G. Matera's 'l Pasturi', Shown in the Museum Pitre, Palermo, Italy

Building Stone Conservation in Practice

F. Natural Hazards

Solar Wind Hydrogen Systems: Chances to Prevent Cultural Sites Abroad from Being Flooded in Case of Increasing Greenhouse Effects

Relationships Between Cultural Resources and the Natural Environment

Inundation and Restoration of the Excavation in Corbeddu Cave, Oliena (Nu.) Sardinia

Geological Investigations on a Seismic Region: A Remote Sensing Methodology Aimed to a Detailed Zoning for a Correct Planning

G. Modeling Methodology and Data Banks

The Presence and Transport of Ozone in the Museum Environment

Simultaneous Measurement of Rate Constants, Mass Transfer Coefficients and Adsorption Equilibrium Constants in Gas-Solid Reactions

A Locational Model for Archaeology: A Case Study in South-East Italy

Documentation and Data Processing in Integrated Conservation

The CORINE Environmental Information System: Applications to the Protection of Europe's Cultural Heritage

MONUFAKT: The Federal Environmental Agency's Database for the Protection of Historic Monuments and Cultural Heritage

Electronic Catalogue of the Historical Artistic Heritage of Veneto

A Prediction Model for Environmental Impact Studies in Tourism

Information Technologies for the Documentation and the Recovery of the Mediterranean Basin's Minor Architecture

H. Field and Laboratory Studies of Specific Historic Areas, Monuments and Indoor Artefacts

Engineering-Geological Study of St. George Castle of Cephalonia

A System of Classification of the Decay of Stone Monuments

Chemical Characterisation of the Weathering Crust of the Jeronimos Monastery

The Colour of the Sandstone from the Whole Cathedral of Salamanca

Corrosion Phenomena of Bohemian and Potsdam glasses from the 17th and 18th Centuries

Stone decay: Effects of Weathering and Air Pollution. The Case of Jeronimos monastery, Lisbon, Portugal

Assessment of the Stone Inventory and Weathering State of the Tombstones of the Old Cemetery of Bonn/FRG as a Constraint for Urban Planning

IRT - Remote Sensing Analysis to Locate Archaeological Sites in the Strait of Messina Area. Its Role in the Bridge Preliminary Project

The Deterioration of 'Terracotta': The Case of Cassa Valenti in Faenza

Weathering of Cretaceous Sandstone and Carrara Marble: Illustrative Examples from the Royal Palace, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The Museo Lapidario Estense in Modena from the Analysis to the Restoration

Weathering Forms and Rock Characteristics of Historical Monuments Carved from Bedrocks in Petra, Jordan

Different Characteristics of Building Sandstone from Old Cathedral of Salamanca

Decay of the industrial heritage of the city of Alcoy: alternative Proposals for its Recovery and Use for Cultural and Educational Purposes

The Wall Paintings of Hosham St Faith Priory: Environmental Causes of Deterioration and their Treatment

Degradation of Building Materials of the Toledo Cathedral, Spain

Studies on Natural Stone Monuments: Methodology and Examples

Study of the Different States of Iron Crystallization in the Sandstones of the Cathedrals of Salamanca, Spain

Diagnosis Study of the St Marienkriche/Lippstadt: A Medieval Green Sandstone Monument for Conservation Planning

Characterization of Blue Pigments in Some Medieval Paints from Andorra

Field and Laboratory Studies of Specific Historical Areas, Monuments, Indoor Objects, etc: Degradation of the Construction Material of the Monumental Front of the 'Arcadi' (Crete)

Alteration of Mortars, Grouts, and Plasters in Toledo's Cathedral due to Humidity

Revitalization of the S. Frutuoso Monument

The Acropolis: Danish Testimonies on its Restoration

An Analysis of the Chemical and Physical Properties of Deteriorated Stones in Historical Monuments in Castile-Leon


Author index


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1991
19th August 1991
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

N.S. Baer

C. Sabbioni

A.I. Sors

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