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Science for Better Environment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080219486, 9781483160498

Science for Better Environment

1st Edition

Proceedings of the International Congress on the Human Environment (Hesc) (Kyoto, 1975)

Author: Sam Stuart
eBook ISBN: 9781483160498
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 1006
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Science for Better Environment: Proceedings of the International Congress on the Human Environment (HESC) focuses on the applications of science in health, human settlements, and protection of the environment. The selection first offers information on the background of HESC, including human settlements and habitat, environment and development, natural disasters, and energy. The text then discusses human’s place in natural ecosystems, along with essential properties of ecosystem, auto-regulation in ecosystem, and collapse of symbiosis between human and nature. The compilation presents a summary of the environmental problems in Japan, including progress and outstanding issues in the environmental field. The water pollution from 1970 to 1975 and air pollution control in the country are underscored. The text also explains the development of antipollution laws in the country. Topics include local government antipollution laws, creation of antipollution laws, and clarifying the responsibility of industries in antipollution drives. The book also touches on the role of scientists in the task of achieving a better environment; challenges of stress on human health in urban ecosystems; and environmental problems on a global scale. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the application of science for the improvement of the environment.

Table of Contents



Opening Session

Opening Address

Give Nature Back to Nature

Progress report

Background for HESC


Only One Earth

Proposals and Conclusion: Priorities in the Agenda for Scientific Research in the Field of Environmental Studies

Priorities in Research for SCOPE

Priorities in the Agenda for Research As Seen by Social Scientists

Priorities for International Cooperative Actions

Closing Address

A Leap Forward

Special Lectures

Man's Place in Natural Ecosystems

Environment and Technology: New Frontiers for the Social and Natural Sciences

Current Environmental Problems in Japan

Current Environmental Problems in Japan —A Summary—suru 51

Water Pollution in Japan, 1970-1975

Air Pollution Control in Japan —On the Issue of Automobile Gas Emission—

Noise Pollution

Merits and Demerits of Atomic Power Generation

Regional Development, Public Works and Environment

The Role of Citizen's Movements

Creation and Development of Japan's Antipollution Laws

Japan's Pollution Litigations

Orientation of the Problems to the Congress

Man's Impacts on the Terrestrial Ecosystems: Food-Energy Interrelationships

The Role of the Scientists in the Task of Achieving a Better Environment

Toward a Better Human Environment: Analytical Tools and Policy Instruments For Conservation and Improvement Of the Environment

Environmental Impact Assessment

Technology Assessment in Environmental Systems: Trade-Offs in Multiple Objectives

Human Settlements as Sociotechnical-Economic Processes

The U.S. National Environmental Policy Act: Its Requirements, Accomplishments and Prospects for Imitation by Japan

Current Environmental Problems in Japan —A Summary—

Water Pollution in Japan, 1970-1975

Air Pollution Control in Japan —On the Issue of Automobile Gas Emission—

Noise Pollution

Merits and Demerits of Atomic Power Generation

Regional Development, Public Works and Environment

The Role of Citizen's Movements

Creation and Development of Japan's Antipollution Laws

Japan's Pollution Litigations

Views from the Field of Jurisprudence

Economic Policy for Preservation of the Environment

Working Group A: Interdisciplinary Discussion on Man's Impact on Terrestrial Ecosystems

A-1: Agro-Ecosystems

Energy Efficiency and Other Problems in Heavily Fertilized Agroecosystems

Water Consumption in Crop Production

The Javanese Home-Garden as an Integrated Agro-Ecosystem

Paddy Ecosystem Affected by Nitrogenous Fertilizer and Insecticides

Incoming and Outgoing of Fertilizer Nutrients in Cropped Lands

An Analysis of Food Production Systems Which Minimize Adverse Environmental Impact

A-2: Urban Ecosystems: (A) Basic Approaches in Urban Ecosystem Studies

Methodology of Urban Ecosystem Studies

A Study on the Metabolism of Cities

An Ecological Grading of Human Settlements with Special Reference to the Urban Habitat

Urban Wildlife—Wildlife Habitat and Implications for Man

A-2: Urban Ecosystems: (B) Socio-Environmental Problems in Urban Ecosystems

Environmental Assessment in Multidisciplinary, Time-Sequence Perspective

Urban Ecological Planning: The First Step in a First Application to Japan

Realization of an Ideal Hydrosphere Environment

A-2: Urban Ecosystems: (C) Impact of Urbanization on Organisms and Man

An Approach to the Mechanism of the Pollution by Heavy Metals in Urban Ecosystems

Creation of the Green in Cities: The Effect of Urbanization on the Plant Community

Bryophytes as Indicators of Air Pollution

The Challenge of Stress on Human Health in Urban Ecosystems

A-2: Urban Ecosystems: (D) Environmental Problems in Urban Ecosystems

Problems of the Urban Environment: A Case Study of Delhi (India)

Regional Planning on Waste Recycling System for Urban Metabolism

A Short Selection of Conceivable Ecodisasters

A-3: Ecological Cycle in Regional Scale

Ecological Approach in National Planning: Conversion into Nature Oriented Japan

Developing a Steady State for Man and Land: Energy Procedures for Regional Planning

Industrial Ecology and Its Application to Environmental Assessment: A Case of the Seto Inland Sea

Models in the Management of Semi-Arid Grazing Lands

A-4: Problems Relating to Regions: (I) Environmental Problems of Lake Biwa

General Consideration on Environmental Problems of Lakes

Analysis of the Present Situation of Lake Biwa

The Nitrogen Cycle in the Lake

Regional Environmental Contamination with PCB's in and around the Coast of Lake Biwa

The Pollution of the Lake Biwa in the Light of the Distribution of Heavy Metals

Some Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Bacterial Population in Lake Biwa

Organisms Living in Lake Biwa and Environment Problems—From the Standpoint of Larger Organisms

Organisms Living in Lake Biwa and Environmental Problems—From the Standpoint of Fisheries

Eutrophication of Lake Biwa—^Nutrient Load Generation

Practical Plans to Prevent Eutrophication of Lake Biwa

On Fisheries of Lake Biwa

Pollution Problems of Lake Biwa and Their Legal Countermeasures

Environmental Problems of Lake Biwa

A-4: Problems Relating to Regions: (II) Seto Inland Sea and Its Coastal Region

The Problems of Industrial Development in Coastal Areas around the Japanese

Organic Pollution and the Outbreaks of Red Tides in Seto Inland Sea

Eutrophication in Mikawa Bay

Working Group B: Problems mainly within the Purview of Natural Sciences

B-3: Environmental Problems on a Global Scale

Global Air Pollution

Action and Reaction Times in Global Marine Pollution Problems

Activities of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Related to Global Marine Pollution Monitoring

B-1: Environmental Toxicology (Scientific Basis for Toxicological Evaluation of Industrial Chemicals)

Can Permissible Levels of Carcinogenic Compounds in the Environment Be Established?

General Toxicological Considerations of Extrapolation from Animals to Man

Problems in the Interpretation of Liver Nodules

Toxicology of Chlorinated Solvents

Inhalation Carcinogenesis

Toxicology of Heavy Metals: The Scientific Basis for Toxicological Evaluation

New Aspects of Environmental Protection Against Developmental Malformations and the Cancer Incidence

Movements of Pesticidal Residues in the Environment

Ecotoxicology of Polychlorinated Organic Compounds

Elemental Composition of Human Hair Determined by Activation Analysis as an Indicator of Environmental Contamination in Man

Attitudes Concerning Industrial and Especially Pesticide Chemicals in the United States

B-4: Methodology of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: (A) Methodology of Environmental Monitoring

Environmental Monitoring Systems and an Intelligent Transmitter

A Simple Mathematical Form for the Urban Environmental Pollution Management

The Methodology of Water-Quality Monitoring: Prediction and Detection of Pollution Sources

Modeling for Prediction of Air Pollution Levels by Non-Physical Models

Preliminary Description of Materials/Energy Balance Statistical Subsystem (MEBSS)

B-4: Methodology of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: (B) Methodology of Environmental Assessment

An Approach to Technology Assessment

Preference Models of Environmental Impact

An Economic Modeling Analysis of the Electric Power Industry in the United States

Environmental Assessment in Regional Planning

B-2: Alternative Technologies—Recycling of Domestic and Industrial Refuse:(A) Problem of Recycling of Industrial Refuse

Pollution and Disposal of Sulfite Wastes from SO2 Removal Plant for Fuel Gas

Pollution Due to Non-Biodegradable and Recalcitrant Organic Substances

The Computer-Aided Control of the Refuse Incinerator

Incineration of Industrial Waste Liquor and Recovery of Inorganic Valuables

B-2: Alternative Technologies—Recycling of Domestic and Industrial Refuse: (B) Disposal Problem of Domestic Refuse

On the Disposal Problems of Domestic Refuse

Combined System of Dewatering and Incineration through the Heat Treating Method for Sewage Sludge

Studies on Fuel Gas Production from Organic Wastes with Bioconversion in Japan

Recycling of Glass Containers and Waste Paper

The Useful Conversion of Agricultural and Animal Wastes

Recovery of Energy from Urban Waste: Prospects for Commercialization

Energy from Organic Wastes: Comparison and Update

Working Group C: Problems mainly in the Purview of Social Sciences

C-1: Human Right to the Environment

A Legal Right to Environmental Quality (Kankyo Ken)

The Fundamental Right to a Decent Environment under the Law of the FederalRepublic of Germany

Peut-Il Exister un Droit Fondamental a I'Environnement? Les Donnees du Probleme en France

Automobile Ownership, Traffic Congestion and Environmental Problems in Lagos

C-2: Legislative Techniques for Environmental Protection

A General Survey of the Problem

Role of Court Justice in Environmental Issues in Japan

The Development of Environmental Assessment Duty in Environmental Litigation in Japan —Structure and Elements of Limit of Endurance Theory—

Ethical Fundamentals of Environmental Legislation

Les Techniques Juridiques de Protection de Tenvironnement en France

Legislative Techniques for Environmental Protection

C-3: Environment and Market Mechanism

The Relationship between Judicial and Administrative Techniques in the Control of Pollution

Environmental Protection and the Role for Lawyers: Activities of the JFBA against Environmental Pollution in Japan

Assessment of Social Costs

On the Polluter-Pay Principle

C-4: Development and Environment: (A) Resources and Assessment

The Fiction of Consumers' Sovereignty

Economic Evaluation and Its Policy Implications for Environmental Control

Fundamental Rights and Environmental Quality

Environmental Standard and the Limitations of So-Called "Regulation of Total Emission"

C-4: Development and Environment: (B) Human Settlements

Procedural Aspect of EIA in Japan and Proposal for Legal Policy

Environment and Development: The Case of the Canadian Arctic

Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Mercury Pollution on Indian Reservations in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

The Cause and Channels of Mercury Pollution in Western Ontario

Life of Canadian Indians and the Influence of Mercury Poisoning on It

Minamata Disease as a Social Disaster

Proposals on Houses and Public Facilities for Minamata Disease Patients

Mercury Pollution in Tokuyama

Administrative Responsibility for 'Minamata Disease'

Discussion on Canadian Mercury Pollution

Working Group D: Problems mainly in the Field of Cultural Studies

D-1: Problem of the Cultural Environment

Scenic Preservation

Basic Problems of Cultural Environment

A New Road for Preservation of Buried Cultural Properties in Japan

In Quest of New Transdisciplinary Concepts of 'Environment' in Education and Culture

Environment and Education of Children in Japan

Social-Cultural Environment in Human Settlements

D-2: Information and Education on the Environment

Background of Education against Environmental Disruption in Japan

Educational Practices at Primary and Secondary School Level in Japan

Scientific Education & Environmental Problems: Report from Kawasaki City

Pollution of Seto Inland Sea

Citizens' Movements and Environmental Education: A Report from Numazu City, Japan

Social Education for Environmental Assessment and Control

Education to Meet the Needs of the Human Environment

Education and Environment

Environmental Education

Plenary Session Comments

Scope President's Speech



No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1977
1st January 1977
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Sam Stuart

Dr. Sam Stuart is a physiotherapist and a research Fellow within the Balance Disorders Laboratory, OHSU. His work focuses on vision, cognition and gait in neurological disorders, examining how technology-based interventions influence these factors. He has published extensively in world leading clinical and engineering journals focusing on a broad range of activities such as real-world data analytics, algorithm development for wearable technology and provided expert opinion on technology for concussion assessment for robust player management. He is currently a guest editor for special issues (sports medicine and transcranial direct current stimulation for motor rehabilitation) within Physiological Measurement and Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, respectively.

Affiliations and Expertise

Physiotherapist and a Research Fellow within the Balance Disorders Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), Oregon, USA

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