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Science and Technology of Rubber - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122343605, 9780323138796

Science and Technology of Rubber

1st Edition

Author: Frederick R. Eirich
eBook ISBN: 9780323138796
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1978
Page Count: 684
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Science and Technology of Rubber covers the most important aspects of rubber science and technology, from synthesis and structure to elasticity and flow, blending, filling, and cross-linking. Polymerization and copolymerization, the rheological behavior of unvulcanized rubber, vulcanization, reinforcement of elastomers by particulate fillers, and the chemical modification of polymers are also discussed. This book is comprised of 14 chapters; the first ten of which take the reader from an introduction through synthesis characterization, mechanical behavior, and flow to the major processing steps of filling, compounding, and vulcanization and to the theories and measurement of elastomeric performance, leaning strongly on the ""materials"" approach. The next three chapters deal with blended, modified, and thermoplastic elastomers, touching on topics such as polymer esterification, etherification, hydrolysis, and hydrogenation as well as the influence of blending on the properties of elastomer/plastic blends, especially impact strength and crack resistance. The book concludes with a chapter on tire manufacture and engineering, with emphasis on the geometric, structural, and chemical aspects of tire. This book will be of vital interest to students, practitioners, and research and development managers, as well as to anyone interested in the unusual chemistry and physics and the outstanding properties and usefulness of elastomers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Rubber Elasticity: Basic Concepts and Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Elasticity of a Single Molecule

III. Elasticity of a Three-Dimensional Network of Polymer Molecules

IV. Comparison with Experiment

V. Continuum Theory of Rubber Elasticity

VI. Second-Order Stresses

VII. Elastic Behavior under Small Deformations

VIII. Some Unsolved Problems in Rubber Elasticity


Chapter 2 Polymerization

I. Introduction

II. Classification of Polymerization Reactions and Kinetic Considerations

III. Functional Group Polymerization

IV. Chain Addition Polymerization by Free Radical Mechanism

V. Emulsion Polymerization

VI. Copolymerization

VII. Addition Polymerization by Cationic Mechanism

VIII. Addition Polymerization by Anionic Mechanism

IX. Stereospecific Polymerization and Copolymerization by Coordination Catalysts

X. Graft and Block Copolymerization


Chapter 3 Structure Characterization in the Science and Technology of Elastomers


I. Chemical Composition and Repeat Unit Structure (Table I)

II. Compositional and Sequence Distribution of Copolymers; Additives (Tables IIA, IIB)

III. Molecular Weight and Its Distribution (MWD); Branching; Gel (Tables III)

IV. Rubber-Glass and Other Secondary Transitions (Table IV)

V. Crystallinity (Table V)

VI. Morphology (Table VI)

General References

Chapter 4 The Molecular and Phenomenological Basis of Rubberlike Elasticity

I. Introduction

II. Statistics of a Polymer Chain

III. Rubberlike Elasticity of a Polymer Network

IV. Applications of Rubberlike Elasticity Theories


Chapter 5 Dynamic Mechanical Properties

I. Introduction

II. Definitions of Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Viscoelastic Functions

III. Zones of Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior and Their Qualitative Molecular Interpretation

IV. The Transition Zone

V. The Plateau Zone

VI. Practical Aspects of Dynamic Properties

VII. Dynamic Properties in Large Deformations

VIII. Experimental Methods and Apparatus for Measurements and Tests


Chapter 6 Rheological Behavior of Unvulcanized Rubber

I. Introduction and Historical Background

II. Basic Concepts

III. Rheological Measurements

IV. Molecular Structure and Rheological Properties of Uncompounded Elastomers

V. Flow of Blends and Compounds

VI. Rheological Applications to Processing


Chapter 7 Vulcanization

I. General Considerations

II. Sulfur Vulcanization

III. Accelerated Sulfur Vulcanization

IV. Vulcanization by Phenolic Resins, Quinone Derivatives, or Maleimides

V. Vulcanization by Metal Oxides

VI. Vulcanization by Peroxides

VII. Cross-Linking by Chain Extension Reactions

VIII. Thermoplastic Elastomers


Chapter 8 Reinforcement of Elastomers by Particulate Fillers

I. Introduction

II. Carbon Black

III. Filler Morphology and Its Characterization

IV. Physical and Chemical Interactions at the Filler Surface

V. The State of the Filler in the Rubber Mix

VI. The State of the Rubber in the Filled Composite

VII. Properties of Unvulcanized Rubber-Filler Mixes

VIII. Mechanical Behavior of Filled Rubber Vulcanizates at Small and Moderate Strains

IX. Large Deformation Behavior

X. Failure Properties


Chapter 9 The Rubber Compound and Its Composition

I. Introduction

II. Selection of Ingredients

III. Compounding Costs

IV. Mixing

V. Resistance to Aging

VI. Summary


Chapter 10 Strength of Elastomers

I. Introduction

II. Initiation of Fracture

III. Crack Propagation

IV. Tensile Rupture

V. Abrasive Wear


Chapter 11 The Chemical Modification of Polymers

I. Introduction

II. Esterification, Etherification, and Hydrolysis of Polymers

III. The Hydrogenation of Polymers

IV. Dehalogenation, Elimination, and Halogenation Reactions in Polymers

V. Other Addition Reactions to Double Bonds

VI. Oxidation Reactions of Polymers

VII. Miscellaneous Chemical Reactions of Polymers

VIII. Block and Graft Copolymerization



Chapter 12 Elastomer Blends

I. Introduction

II. Elastomer/Elastomer Blends

III. Elastomer/Plastic Blends

IV. General Correlations and Conclusions


Chapter 13 Thermoplastic Elastomers

I. Introduction

II. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers

III. Behavior in the Transition Temperature Range

IV. Orientation

V. Mechanical Properties

VI. Application of Thermoplastic Elastomers


Chapter 14 Tire Manufacture and Engineering

I. Introduction

II. Tire Engineering

III. Tire Manufacture


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1978
28th September 1978
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Frederick R. Eirich

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