Science and Technology of Rubber

Science and Technology of Rubber

1st Edition - September 28, 1978

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  • Author: Frederick R. Eirich
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138796

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Science and Technology of Rubber covers the most important aspects of rubber science and technology, from synthesis and structure to elasticity and flow, blending, filling, and cross-linking. Polymerization and copolymerization, the rheological behavior of unvulcanized rubber, vulcanization, reinforcement of elastomers by particulate fillers, and the chemical modification of polymers are also discussed. This book is comprised of 14 chapters; the first ten of which take the reader from an introduction through synthesis characterization, mechanical behavior, and flow to the major processing steps of filling, compounding, and vulcanization and to the theories and measurement of elastomeric performance, leaning strongly on the ""materials"" approach. The next three chapters deal with blended, modified, and thermoplastic elastomers, touching on topics such as polymer esterification, etherification, hydrolysis, and hydrogenation as well as the influence of blending on the properties of elastomer/plastic blends, especially impact strength and crack resistance. The book concludes with a chapter on tire manufacture and engineering, with emphasis on the geometric, structural, and chemical aspects of tire. This book will be of vital interest to students, practitioners, and research and development managers, as well as to anyone interested in the unusual chemistry and physics and the outstanding properties and usefulness of elastomers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1 Rubber Elasticity: Basic Concepts and Behavior

    I. Introduction

    II. Elasticity of a Single Molecule

    III. Elasticity of a Three-Dimensional Network of Polymer Molecules

    IV. Comparison with Experiment

    V. Continuum Theory of Rubber Elasticity

    VI. Second-Order Stresses

    VII. Elastic Behavior under Small Deformations

    VIII. Some Unsolved Problems in Rubber Elasticity


    Chapter 2 Polymerization

    I. Introduction

    II. Classification of Polymerization Reactions and Kinetic Considerations

    III. Functional Group Polymerization

    IV. Chain Addition Polymerization by Free Radical Mechanism

    V. Emulsion Polymerization

    VI. Copolymerization

    VII. Addition Polymerization by Cationic Mechanism

    VIII. Addition Polymerization by Anionic Mechanism

    IX. Stereospecific Polymerization and Copolymerization by Coordination Catalysts

    X. Graft and Block Copolymerization


    Chapter 3 Structure Characterization in the Science and Technology of Elastomers


    I. Chemical Composition and Repeat Unit Structure (Table I)

    II. Compositional and Sequence Distribution of Copolymers; Additives (Tables IIA, IIB)

    III. Molecular Weight and Its Distribution (MWD); Branching; Gel (Tables III)

    IV. Rubber-Glass and Other Secondary Transitions (Table IV)

    V. Crystallinity (Table V)

    VI. Morphology (Table VI)

    General References

    Chapter 4 The Molecular and Phenomenological Basis of Rubberlike Elasticity

    I. Introduction

    II. Statistics of a Polymer Chain

    III. Rubberlike Elasticity of a Polymer Network

    IV. Applications of Rubberlike Elasticity Theories


    Chapter 5 Dynamic Mechanical Properties

    I. Introduction

    II. Definitions of Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Viscoelastic Functions

    III. Zones of Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior and Their Qualitative Molecular Interpretation

    IV. The Transition Zone

    V. The Plateau Zone

    VI. Practical Aspects of Dynamic Properties

    VII. Dynamic Properties in Large Deformations

    VIII. Experimental Methods and Apparatus for Measurements and Tests


    Chapter 6 Rheological Behavior of Unvulcanized Rubber

    I. Introduction and Historical Background

    II. Basic Concepts

    III. Rheological Measurements

    IV. Molecular Structure and Rheological Properties of Uncompounded Elastomers

    V. Flow of Blends and Compounds

    VI. Rheological Applications to Processing


    Chapter 7 Vulcanization

    I. General Considerations

    II. Sulfur Vulcanization

    III. Accelerated Sulfur Vulcanization

    IV. Vulcanization by Phenolic Resins, Quinone Derivatives, or Maleimides

    V. Vulcanization by Metal Oxides

    VI. Vulcanization by Peroxides

    VII. Cross-Linking by Chain Extension Reactions

    VIII. Thermoplastic Elastomers


    Chapter 8 Reinforcement of Elastomers by Particulate Fillers

    I. Introduction

    II. Carbon Black

    III. Filler Morphology and Its Characterization

    IV. Physical and Chemical Interactions at the Filler Surface

    V. The State of the Filler in the Rubber Mix

    VI. The State of the Rubber in the Filled Composite

    VII. Properties of Unvulcanized Rubber-Filler Mixes

    VIII. Mechanical Behavior of Filled Rubber Vulcanizates at Small and Moderate Strains

    IX. Large Deformation Behavior

    X. Failure Properties


    Chapter 9 The Rubber Compound and Its Composition

    I. Introduction

    II. Selection of Ingredients

    III. Compounding Costs

    IV. Mixing

    V. Resistance to Aging

    VI. Summary


    Chapter 10 Strength of Elastomers

    I. Introduction

    II. Initiation of Fracture

    III. Crack Propagation

    IV. Tensile Rupture

    V. Abrasive Wear


    Chapter 11 The Chemical Modification of Polymers

    I. Introduction

    II. Esterification, Etherification, and Hydrolysis of Polymers

    III. The Hydrogenation of Polymers

    IV. Dehalogenation, Elimination, and Halogenation Reactions in Polymers

    V. Other Addition Reactions to Double Bonds

    VI. Oxidation Reactions of Polymers

    VII. Miscellaneous Chemical Reactions of Polymers

    VIII. Block and Graft Copolymerization



    Chapter 12 Elastomer Blends

    I. Introduction

    II. Elastomer/Elastomer Blends

    III. Elastomer/Plastic Blends

    IV. General Correlations and Conclusions


    Chapter 13 Thermoplastic Elastomers

    I. Introduction

    II. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers

    III. Behavior in the Transition Temperature Range

    IV. Orientation

    V. Mechanical Properties

    VI. Application of Thermoplastic Elastomers


    Chapter 14 Tire Manufacture and Engineering

    I. Introduction

    II. Tire Engineering

    III. Tire Manufacture


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 684
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1978
  • Published: September 28, 1978
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138796

About the Author

Frederick R. Eirich

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