Scheduling and Operation of Virtual Power Plants

Scheduling and Operation of Virtual Power Plants

Technical Challenges and Electricity Markets

1st Edition - February 1, 2022
  • Editors: Ali Zangeneh, Moein Moeini-Aghtaie
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323852678

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Scheduling and Operation of Virtual Power Plants: Technical Challenges and Electricity Markets provides a multidisciplinary perspective on recent advances in VPPs, ranging from required infrastructures and planning to operation and control. The work details the required components in a virtual power plant, including smartness of power system, instrument and information and communication technologies (ICTs), measurement units, and distributed energy sources. Contributors assess the proposed benefits of virtual power plant in solving problems of distributed energy sources in integrating the small, distributed and intermittent output of these units. In addition, they investigate the likely technical challenges regarding control and interaction with other entities. Finally, the work considers the role of VPPs in electricity markets, showing how distributed energy resources and demand response providers can integrate their resources through virtual power plant concepts to effectively participate in electricity markets to solve the issues of small capacity and intermittency. The work is suitable for experienced engineers, researchers, managers and policymakers interested in using VPPs in future smart grids.

Key Features

  • Explores key enabling technologies and infrastructures for virtual power plants in future smart energy systems
  • Reviews technical challenges and introduces solutions to the operation and control of VPPs, particularly focusing on control and interaction with other power system entities
  • Introduces the key integrating role of VPPs in enabling DER powered participative electricity markets


Graduate students (MS and Ph.D. students). Early career researchers. Power system engineers. Distribution system operators, market operators, renewable energy owners, private entities

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction and history of virtual power pants
    1.1. Background and motivation
    1.2. Literature review
    1.3. Book structure
    2. Basics of virtual power plants
    2.1. VPPs and microgrids
    2.2. Commercial VPP
    2.3. Technical VPP
    2.4. Introduction of various VPP grid services 
    2.5 Advantageous and disadvantageous of VPPs
    2.6. Some experimental examples of VPPs in the world

    3. Infrastructures of virtual power plants
    3.1. VPP required infrastructures
           3.2. Network requirement (toward smart grid)
    3.3. Data transactions and interactions between agents
             3.4. VPP cyber security

    4. Energy and capacity management of distribution network
           4.1. DERs: models, constraints, and ownerships
           4.2. Optimization model of a virtual power plant to provide Energy and reserve
    4.3. Optimization model of a virtual power plant to provide frequency support
           4.4. Control methods 
           4.5. Considering network constraints and reconfiguration
    5. Demand side management
    5.1. Various models of participation in demand response aggregation market
    5.2 Incentive-based demand response scheme for a virtual power plant
    5.3 Price-based demand response scheme for a virtual power plant
    5.4. The role of demand response exchange market in reducing the deviation between the results of day-ahead and real-time market

    6. The role of virtual power plants in electricity markets
    6.1. VPP regulatory challenges
    6.2. Financial business models of virtual power plants
        6.3. Bidding Strategy in the electricity market
        6.4. Provision of reserve product in markets
        6.5. Other ancillary services
        6.6. Game theory and multi agent 

    7. Transactive Energy 
    7.1. The role of VPPs in Transactive markets
    7.2. Transactive interactions of DERs inside VPP structure
    7.3. Transactive interactions of VPP and other agents in transmission network
    8. Reliability and security analysis of VPPs
    8.1. Reliability characteristics of DERs
    8.2. Reliability analysis of distribution network
    9. The role of VPP in reducing stability problems
    9.1. Small signal stability
    9.2. Voltage stability 
    10. Uncertainties modeling of renewable energy resources
    10.1. Uncertainty modeling of RESs (PV units and Wind)
              10.2. Methods of considering RES’s uncertainties in VPP decision making (Probabilistic scenario-based, FCM, Robust, …)
              10.3 Uncertainties reduction of RESs 
    11. Carbon emission trading and the potential of VPPs in emission reduction
    11.1. Cost and emission impacts in virtual power plant scheduling programs 
    11.2. Economic/emission operational scheduling of a virtual power plant
    11.3. Carbon trading for controlling Virtual Power Plant emissions 
    12. Energy forecast strategy for a virtual power plant including renewable energy resources 
    12.1. Short and long-term forecasting
    12.2. A Bayesian method for short-term probabilistic forecasting of the generation of wind power
    12.3. A neural network-based method for short-term forecasting of the wind and solar power generation
    12.4. Long-term prediction of wind power generation using deep learning method
    12.5. Forecasting the flexible capacity of the virtual power plant
    12.6. Forecast of the other DER capacity and availability
    12.3. Forecast of energy demand in virtual power plants 
    13. Electric vehicles and energy storages
    13.1. Optimal operating strategy of virtual power plant considering EVs 
    13.2. Frequency regulation for the virtual power plant using EVs 
    13.3. Vehicle to grid implementation through virtual power plants
    13.4. The impact of the capacity of the energy storage system (ESS) on VPPs profitability
    13.5.  Offer Curve Generation for the energy storage system as a component of Virtual Power Plant
    13.6. Using Energy Storage Systems to eliminate the fluctuation characteristics of renewables

    14. Future trend of virtual power plants

Product details

  • No. of pages: 450
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: February 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323852678

About the Editors

Ali Zangeneh

Ali Zanganeh is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran. He received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) in 2010. His research interests include demand side management, smart grid, resiliency, distributed generation and optimization in power systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, Iran

Moein Moeini-Aghtaie

Moein Moeini-Aghtaie is Assistant Professor of Electical Engineering at Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. He received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2010 and 2014, respectively, both in electrical engineering. His current research interests include reliability and resilience studies of modern distribution systems, especially in the multi-carrier energy environment, and charging management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran