Scattering, Natural Surfaces, and Fractals

1st Edition

Authors: Giorgio Franceschetti Daniele Riccio
Hardcover ISBN: 9780122656552
eBook ISBN: 9780080469010
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 8th December 2006
Page Count: 304
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of electromagnetic scattering from natural surfaces, ranging from the classical to the more recent (fractal) approach. As remote sensing applications become increasingly important, this text provides readers with a solid background in interpretation, classification and thematization of microwave images. The “scattering problem” is discussed in detail with emphasis on its application to electromagnetic wave propagation, remote sensing, radar detection, and electromagnetic diagnostics. Natural surface and fractals complete this treatise focusing on how the fractal model represents our natural environment and other planets in our solar system, most recently as used to research the planet Venus and Titan, one of the moons of Saturn. An example of how scattering, fractals, and natural surfaces are of great importance is the following: Natural oil slicks in the ocean have been found to be fractal while man-made ones (generated by illegal washing of oil carrying ships) are not. Processing of an ocean image from space may detect the latter by means of a fractal analysis.

Key Features

An elegant and clear treatment of a rigorous topic with informative prose and realistic illustrations of scattering Provides readers with a solid background in interpretation, classification, and thematization of microwave images *The only book available on fractal models and their application to scattering


Geoscience and remote sensing technical and scientific community ie. engineers, physicists, geologists, applied mathematicians, earth scientists.

This book should also be useful as a text for graduate courses on electromagnetic scattering and remote sensing.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: The Scattering Problem
    • 1.1 Introduction and Chapter Outline
    • 1.2 The Scattering-Problem Definition
    • 1.3 Motivations
    • 1.4 Surface Models and Electromagnetic Methods
    • 1.5 Deterministic versus Stochastic Models for the Natural Surfaces
    • 1.6 Deterministic versus Stochastic Evaluation for the Scattered Field
    • 1.7 Analytic versus Numerical Evaluation of the Scattered Field
    • 1.8 Closed-Form Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Field Scattered from a Natural Surface
    • 1.9 Book Outline
    • 1.10 References and Further Readings
  • Chapter 2: Surface Classical Models
    • 2.1 Introduction and Chapter Outline
    • 2.2 Fundamentals of Stochastic Processes
    • 2.3 Spectral Characterization of Stochastic Processes
    • 2.4 Isotropic Surfaces
    • 2.5 Classical Models for Natural Surfaces: First-Order Stochastic Characterization
    • 2.6 Classical Models for Natural Surfaces: Second-Order Stochastic Characterization
    • 2.7 Physical Counterpart of Natural-Surfaces Classical Parameters
    • 2.8 Surface Classical Models Selection for Electromagnetic Scattering
    • 2.9 References and Further Readings
    • Appendix 2.A Surface Classical Models
  • Chapter 3: Surface Fractal Models
    • 3.1 Introduction and Chapter Outline
    • 3.2 Fundamentals of Fractal Sets
    • 3.3 Mathematical versus Physical Fractal Sets
    • 3.4 Deterministic versus Stochastic Fractal Description of Natural Surfaces
    • 3.5 Fractional Brownian Motion Process
    • 3.6 Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function
    • 3.7 Connection between fBm and WM Models
    • 3.8 A Chosen Reference Fractal Surface for the Scattering Problem
    • 3.9 Fractal-Surface Models and their Comparison with Classical Ones
    • 3.10 References and Further Readings


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About the Author

Giorgio Franceschetti

Giorgio Franceschetti was appointed professor of Electromagnetic Theory at the University Federico II of Napoli, Italy in 1969, a position that he holds to this day. He has been Fulbright Scholar and Research Associate at Caltech, Visiting Professor at the University of Illinois, at UCLA, at the Somali University (Somalia) and at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). He is currently Adjunct Professor at UCLA, Distinguished Visiting Scientist at JPL and Lecturer at the Top-Tech Master of University of Delft, The Netherlands, in Satellite Navigation.

Affiliations and Expertise

JPL - Jet Propulsion Laboratory , Pasadena, CA, U.S.A.

Daniele Riccio

Daniele Riccio is professor of Electromagnetic Theory at the University of Napoli Federico II, Italy where he teaches courses on Applied Electromagnetic and Remote Sensing. He has also been Guest Scientist at DLR, Munich, Germany and Visiting Professor at UPC, Barcelona, Spain. The material of this book is included in the courses that he delivers at University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Università "Federico II" di Napoli, Italy