This book provides a comprehensive overview of electromagnetic scattering from natural surfaces, ranging from the classical to the more recent (fractal) approach. As remote sensing applications become increasingly important, this text provides readers with a solid background in interpretation, classification and thematization of microwave images. The “scattering problem” is discussed in detail with emphasis on its application to electromagnetic wave propagation, remote sensing, radar detection, and electromagnetic diagnostics. Natural surface and fractals complete this treatise focusing on how the fractal model represents our natural environment and other planets in our solar system, most recently as used to research the planet Venus and Titan, one of the moons of Saturn. An example of how scattering, fractals, and natural surfaces are of great importance is the following: Natural oil slicks in the ocean have been found to be fractal while man-made ones (generated by illegal washing of oil carrying ships) are not. Processing of an ocean image from space may detect the latter by means of a fractal analysis.

Key Features

*An elegant and clear treatment of a rigorous topic with informative prose and realistic illustrations of scattering *Provides readers with a solid background in interpretation, classification, and thematization of microwave images *The only book available on fractal models and their application to scattering


Geoscience and remote sensing technical and scientific community ie. engineers, physicists, geologists, applied mathematicians, earth scientists. This book should also be useful as a text for graduate courses on electromagnetic scattering and remote sensing.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: The Scattering Problem
    • 1.1 Introduction and Chapter Outline
    • 1.2 The Scattering-Problem Definition
    • 1.3 Motivations
    • 1.4 Surface Models and Electromagnetic Methods
    • 1.5 Deterministic versus Stochastic Models for the Natural Surfaces
    • 1.6 Deterministic versus Stochastic Evaluation for the Scattered Field
    • 1.7 Analytic versus Numerical Evaluation of the Scattered Field
    • 1.8 Closed-Form Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Field Scattered from a Natural Surface
    • 1.9 Book Outline
    • 1.10 References and Further Readings
  • Chapter 2: Surface Classical Models
    • 2.1 Introduction and Chapter Outline
    • 2.2 Fundamentals of Stochastic Processes
    • 2.3 Spectral Characterization of Stochastic Processes
    • 2.4 Isotropic Surfaces
    • 2.5 Classical Models for Natural Surfaces: First-Order Stochastic Characterization
    • 2.6 Classical Models for Natural Surfaces: Second-Order Stochastic Characterization
    • 2.7 Physical Counterpart of Natural-Surfaces Classical Parameters
    • 2.8 Surface Classical Models Selection for Electromagnetic Scattering
    • 2.9 References and Further Readings
    • Appendix 2.A Surface Classical Models
  • Chapter 3: Surface Fractal Models
    • 3.1 Introduction and Chapter Outline
    • 3.2 Fundamentals of Fractal Sets
    • 3.3 Mathematical versus Physical Fractal Sets
    • 3.4 Deterministic versus Stochastic Fractal Description of Natural Surfaces
    • 3.5 Fractional Brownian Motion Process
    • 3.6 Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function
    • 3.7 Connection between fBm and WM Models
    • 3.8 A Chosen Reference Fractal Surface for the Scattering Problem
    • 3.9 Fractal-Surface Models and their Comparison with Classical Ones
    • 3.10 References and Further Readings


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© 2007
Academic Press
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